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Laurence Sterne From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search The Reverend Laurence Sterne Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1760 Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1760 Born 24 November 1713 Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland Died 18 March 1768 (aged 54) London, England Occupation Novelist, clergyman Nationality Irish Alma mater Jesus College, Cambridge Notable works The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy A Political Romance Spouse Elizabeth Lumley Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768), an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican cleric, wrote the novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, published sermons and memoirs, and indulged in local politics. He grew up in a military family travelling mainly in Ireland but briefly in England. An uncle paid for Sterne to attend Hipperholme Grammar School in the West Riding of Yorkshire, as Sterne's father was ordered to Jamaica, where he died of malaria some years later. He attended Jesus College, Cambridge on a sizarship, gaining bachelor's and master's degrees. While Vicar of Sutton-on-the-Forest, Yorkshire, he married Elizabeth Lumley in 1741. His ecclesiastical satire A Political Romance infuriated the church and was burnt. With his new talent for writing, he published early volumes of his best-known novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. Sterne travelled to France to find relief from persistent tuberculosis, documenting his travels in A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy

Part 2[]

Laurence Sterne From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search The Reverend Laurence Sterne Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1760 Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1760 Born 24 November 1713 Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland Died 18 March 1768 (aged 54) London, England Occupation Novelist, clergyman Nationality Irish Alma mater Jesus College, Cambridge Notable works The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy A Political Romance Spouse Elizabeth Lumley Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768), an Anglo-Irish novelist and Anglican cleric, wrote the novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, published sermons and memoirs, and indulged in local politics. He grew up in a military family travelling mainly in Ireland but briefly in England. An uncle paid for Sterne to attend Hipperholme Grammar School in the West Riding of Yorkshire, as Sterne's father was ordered to Jamaica, where he died of malaria some years later. He attended Jesus College, Cambridge on a sizarship, gaining bachelor's and master's degrees. While Vicar of Sutton-on-the-Forest, Yorkshire, he married Elizabeth Lumley in 1741. His ecclesiastical satire A Political Romance infuriated the church and was burnt. With his new talent for writing, he published early volumes of his best-known novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. Sterne travelled to France to find relief from persistent tuberculosis, documenting his travels in A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, published weeks before his death. His posthumous Journal to Eliza addresses Eliza Draper, for whom he had romantic feelings. Sterne died in 1768 and was buried in the yard of St George's, Hanover Square. His body was said to have been stolen after burial and sold to anatomists at Cambridge University, but recognised and reinterred. His ostensible skull was found in the churchyard and transferred to Coxwold in 1969 by the Laurence Sterne Trust.


Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Early career 1.3 Writing 1.4 Foreign travel 1.5 Eliza 1.6 Death 2 Works 3 Publications 4 See also 5 Citations 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit]

Laurence Sterne by Joseph Nollekens, 1766, National Portrait Gallery, London Sterne was born in Clonmel, County Tipperary on 24 November 1713.[1] His father, Roger Sterne, was an ensign in a British regiment recently returned from Dunkirk.[2] His great-grandfather Richard Sterne had been the Master of Jesus College, Cambridge as well as the Archbishop of York.[3] Roger Sterne was the youngest son of Richard Sterne's youngest son and consequently, Roger Sterne inherited little of Richard Sterne's wealth.[3] Roger Sterne left his family and enlisted in the army at the age of 25; he enlisted uncommissioned, which was unusual for someone from a family of high social position. Despite being promoted to an officer, he was of the lowest commission and lacked financial resources.[4] Roger Sterne married Agnes Hobert, the widow of a military captain.[5] Agnes was "born in Flanders but... was in fact Anglo-Irish and lived for much of her life in Ireland."[6]

The first decade of Laurence Sterne's life was spent from place to place, as his father was regularly reassigned to a new (usually Irish) garrison. "Other than a three-year stint in a Dublin townhouse, the Sternes never lived anywhere for more than a year between Laurence's birth and his departure for boarding school in England a few months shy of his eleventh birthday. Besides Clonmel and Dublin, the Sternes also lived in Wicklow Town; Annamoe, Co. Wicklow; Drogheda, Co. Louth; Castlepollard, Co. Westmeath; Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim; and Derry City."[7] In 1724, "shortly before the family's arrival in Derry,"[8] Roger took Sterne to his wealthy brother, Richard, so that Laurence could attend Hipperholme Grammar School near Halifax.[9] Laurence never saw his father again as Roger was ordered to Jamaica where he died of malaria in 1731.[10] Laurence was admitted to a sizarship at Jesus College, in July 1733 at the age of 20.[11] He graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Arts in January 1737 and returned in the summer of 1740 to be awarded his Master of Arts degree.[12]

Early career[edit] Sterne was ordained as a deacon on 6 March 1737[13] and as a priest on 20 August 1738.[14] His religion is said to have been the "centrist Anglicanism of his time", known as "latitudinarianism".[15] A few days after his ordination as a priest, Sterne was awarded the vicarage living of Sutton-on-the-Forest in Yorkshire.[16] Sterne married Elizabeth Lumley on 30 March 1741, despite both being ill with consumption.[17] In 1743, he was presented to the neighbouring living of Stillington by Rev. Richard Levett, Prebendary of Stillington, who was patron of the living. Subsequently, Sterne did duty both there and at Sutton.[18] He was also a prebendary of York Minster.[19] Sterne's life at this time was closely tied with his uncle, Jaques Sterne, the Archdeacon of Cleveland and Precentor of York Minster. Sterne's uncle was an ardent Whig,[20] and urged Sterne to begin a career of political journalism which resulted in some scandal for Sterne and, eventually, a terminal falling-out between the two men.[21] This falling out occurred after Sterne ended his political career in 1742. He had previously written anonymous propaganda for the York Gazetteer from 1741 to 1742. [22] Laurence lived in Sutton for twenty years, during which time he kept up an intimacy which had begun at Cambridge with John Hall-Stevenson, a witty and accomplished bon vivant, owner of Skelton Hall in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.[23]

Writing[edit]

Shandy Hall, Sterne's home in Coxwold, North Yorkshire Sterne wrote a religious satire work called A Political Romance in 1759. Many copies of his work were destroyed.[24] According to a 1760 anonymous letter, Sterne "hardly knew that he could write at all, much less with humour so as to make his reader laugh".[25] At the age of 46, Sterne dedicated himself to writing for the rest of his life. It was while living in the countryside, having failed in his attempts to supplement his income as a farmer and struggling with tuberculosis, that Sterne began work on his best-known novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, the first volumes of which were published in 1759. Sterne was at work on his celebrated comic novel during the year that his mother died, his wife was seriously ill, and his daughter was also taken ill with a fever.[26] He wrote as fast as he possibly could, composing the first 18 chapters between January and March 1759.[27] Due to his poor financial position, Sterne was forced to borrow money for the printing of his novel, suggesting that Sterne was confident in the prospective commercial success of his work and that the local critical reception of the novel was favourable enough to justify the loan.[28]

The publication of Tristram Shandy made Sterne famous in London and on the continent. He was delighted by the attention, famously saying "I wrote not [to] be fed but to be famous."[29] He spent part of each year in London, being fêted as new volumes appeared. Even after the publication of volumes three and four of Tristram Shandy, his love of attention (especially as related to financial success) remained undiminished. In one letter, he wrote "One half of the town abuse my book as bitterly, as the other half cry it up to the skies — the best is, they abuse it and buy it, and at such a rate, that we are going on with a second edition, as fast as possible."[30] Indeed, Baron Fauconberg rewarded Sterne by appointing him as the perpetual curate of Coxwold, North Yorkshire in March 1760.[31]

In 1766, at the height of the debate about slavery, the composer and former slave Ignatius Sancho wrote to Sterne[32] encouraging him to use his pen to lobby for the abolition of the slave trade.[33] In July 1766 Sterne received Sancho's letter shortly after he had finished writing a conversation between his fictional characters Corporal Trim and his brother Tom in Tristram Shandy, wherein Tom described the oppression of a black servant in a sausage shop in Lisbon which he had visited.[34] Sterne's widely publicised response to Sancho's letter became an integral part of 18th-century abolitionist literature.[34]

Foreign travel[edit] Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years' War and France in the Seven Years' War

Sterne painted in watercolour by French artist Louis Carrogis Carmontelle, ca. 1762 Sterne continued to struggle with his illness, and departed England for France in 1762 in an effort to find a climate that would alleviate his suffering. Sterne was lucky to attach himself to a diplomatic party bound for Turin, as England and France were still adversaries in the Seven Years' War. Sterne was gratified by his reception in France, where reports of the genius of Tristram Shandy had made him a celebrity. Aspects of this trip to France were incorporated into Sterne's second novel, A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy.[35]

Eliza[edit] Early in 1767, Sterne met Eliza Draper, the wife of an official of the East India Company, then staying on her own in London.[36] He was quickly captivated by Eliza's charm, vivacity, and intelligence, and she did little to discourage the attentions of such a celebrated man.[37][38] They met frequently, exchanged miniature portraits, and Sterne's admiration seems to have turned into an obsession which he took no trouble to conceal. To his great distress, Eliza had to return to India three months after their first meeting, and he died from consumption a year later without seeing her again.

Early in 1768, Sterne brought out his Sentimental Journey, which contains some extravagant references to her, and the relationship, though platonic, aroused considerable interest. He also wrote his Journal to Eliza part of which he sent to her, and the rest of which came to light when it was presented to the British Museum in 1894. After Sterne's death, Eliza allowed ten of his letters to be published under the title Letters from Yorick to Eliza and succeeded in suppressing her letters to him, though some blatant forgeries were produced, probably by William Combe, in a volume of Eliza's Letters to Yorick.[39]

Death[edit] Less than a month after Sentimental Journey was published, early in 1768, Sterne died in his lodgings at 41 Old Bond Street on 18 March, at the age of 54.[40] He was buried in the churchyard of St George's, Hanover Square on 22 March.[41] It was widely rumoured that Sterne's body was stolen shortly after it was interred and sold to anatomists at Cambridge University. Circumstantially, it was said that his body was recognised by Charles Collignon, who knew him[42][43] and discreetly reinterred back in St George's, in an unknown plot. A year later a group of Freemasons erected a memorial stone with a rhyming epitaph near to his original burial place. A second stone was erected in 1893, correcting some factual errors on the memorial stone. When the churchyard of St. George's was redeveloped in 1969, amongst 11,500 skulls disinterred, several were identified with drastic cuts from anatomising or a post-mortem examination. One was identified to be of a size that matched a bust of Sterne made by Nollekens.[44][45]

The skull was held up to be his, albeit with "a certain area of doubt".[46] Along with nearby skeletal bones, these remains were transferred to Coxwold churchyard in 1969 by the Laurence Sterne Trust.[47][48][49] The story of the reinterment of Sterne's skull in Coxwold is alluded to in Malcolm Bradbury's novel To the Hermitage.[50]

Works[edit]

First editions of Tristram Shandy, part of the collection of the Laurence Sterne Trust at Shandy Hall The works of Laurence Sterne are few in comparison to other eighteenth-century authors of comparable stature.[51] Sterne's early works were letters; he had two sermons published (in 1747 and 1750), and tried his hand at satire.[52] He was involved in, and wrote about, local politics in 1742.[52] His major publication prior to Tristram Shandy was the satire A Political Romance (1759), aimed at conflicts of interest within York Minster.[52] A posthumously published piece on the art of preaching, A Fragment in the Manner of Rabelais, appears to have been written in 1759.[53] Rabelais was by far Sterne's favourite author, and in his correspondence he made clear that he considered himself as Rabelais' successor in humour writing, distancing himself from Jonathan Swift.[54][55]

Sterne's novel The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman sold widely in England and throughout Europe.[56] Translations of the work began to appear in all the major European languages almost upon its publication, and Sterne influenced European writers as diverse as Denis Diderot[57] and the German Romanticists.[58] His work had also noticeable influence over Brazilian author Machado de Assis, who made use of the digressive technique in the novel The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas.[59]

English writer and literary critic Samuel Johnson's verdict in 1776 was that "Nothing odd will do long. Tristram Shandy did not last."[60] This is strikingly different from the views of European critics of the day, who praised Sterne and Tristram Shandy as innovative and superior. Voltaire called it "clearly superior to Rabelais", and later Goethe praised Sterne as "the most beautiful spirit that ever lived".[52] Swedish translator Johan Rundahl described Sterne as an arch-sentimentalist.[61] The title page to volume one includes a short Greek epigraph, which in English reads: "Not things, but opinions about things, trouble men."[62] Before the novel properly begins, Sterne also offers a dedication to Lord William Pitt.[63] He urges Pitt to retreat with the book from the cares of statecraft.[64]

The novel itself starts with the narration, by Tristram, of his own conception. It proceeds mostly by what Sterne calls "progressive digressions" so that we do not reach Tristram's birth before the third volume.[65][66] The novel is rich in characters and humour, and the influences of Rabelais and Miguel de Cervantes are present throughout. The novel ends after 9 volumes, published over a decade, but without anything that might be considered a traditional conclusion. Sterne inserts sermons, essays and legal documents into the pages of his novel; and he explores the limits of typography and print design by including marbled pages and an entirely black page within the narrative.[52] Many of the innovations that Sterne introduced, adaptations in form that were an exploration of what constitutes the novel, were highly influential to Modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf, and more contemporary writers such as Thomas Pynchon and David Foster Wallace.[67] Italo Calvino referred to Tristram Shandy as the "undoubted progenitor of all avant-garde novels of our century".[67] The Russian Formalist writer Viktor Shklovsky regarded Tristram Shandy as the archetypal, quintessential novel, "the most typical novel of world literature."[68]

However, the leading critical opinions of Tristram Shandy tend to be markedly polarised in their evaluations of its significance. Since the 1950s, following the lead of D. W. Jefferson, there are those who argue that, whatever its legacy of influence may be, Tristram Shandy in its original context actually represents a resurgence of a much older, Renaissance tradition of "Learned Wit" – owing a debt to such influences as the Scriblerian approach.[69] A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy has many stylistic parallels with Tristram Shandy, and indeed, the narrator is one of the minor characters from the earlier novel.[70] Although the story is more straightforward, A Sentimental Journey is interpreted by critics as part of the same artistic project to which Tristram Shandy belongs.[71] Two volumes of Sterne's Sermons were published during his lifetime; more copies of his Sermons were sold in his lifetime than copies of Tristram Shandy.[72] The sermons, however, are conventional in substance.[73] Several volumes of letters were published after his death, as was Journal to Eliza.[74] These collections of letters, more sentimental than humorous, tell of Sterne's relationship with Eliza Draper.[75]

Publications[edit] 1743 – "The Unknown World: Verses Occasioned by Hearing a Pass-Bell" (disputed, possibly written by Hubert Stogdon[76]) 1747 – "The Case of Elijah and the Widow of Zerephath" 1750 – "The Abuses of Conscience" 1759 – A Political Romance 1759 – Tristram Shandy vol. 1 and 2 1760 – The Sermons of Mr Yorick vol. 1 and 2 1761 – Tristram Shandy vol. 3–6 1765 – Tristram Shandy vol. 7 and 8 1766 – The Sermons of Mr Yorick vol. 3 and 4 1767 – Tristram Shandy vol. 9 1768 – A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (The Sermons of Mr. Yorick volumes 5-7, were published in 1769.) Source[77]

See also[edit] List of abolitionist forerunners List of Irish writers Citations[edit] ^ Keymer 2009, p. xii. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 20–21. ^ Jump up to: a b Ross 2001, pp. 22–23. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 23–24. ^ Ross 2001, p. 24. ^ Clare 2016, pp. 16. ^ Clare 2016, pp. 16–17. ^ Clare 2016, pp. 17. ^ Ross 2001, p. 33. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 29–30. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 36–37. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 43–44. ^ "Laurence Sterne's holy orders". British Library. British Library. Retrieved 7 February 2020. ^ Sichel 1971, p. 27. ^ "Laurence Sterne". www.oxforddnb.com. Retrieved 28 March 2017. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 48–49. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 58–60. ^ Cross 1909, p. 54. ^ Cross 1909, p. 37. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 45–47. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 64–70, 168–174. ^ Keymer 2009, pp. 6–7. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 41–42; Vapereau 1876, p. 1915 ^ Ross 2001, pp. 190–196. ^ Howes 1971, p. 60. ^ "Cross (1908), chap. 8, The Publication of Tristram Shandy: Volumes I and II, p.197 ^ Cross (1908), chap. 8, The Publication of Tristram Shandy: Volumes I and II, p. 178. ^ Ross 2001, p. 213. ^ Fanning, Christopher. "Sterne and print culture". The Cambridge Companion to Laurence Sterne: 125–141. ^ The Letters of Laurence Sterne: Part One, 1739–1764. University Press of Florida. 2009. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-0813032368. ^ Howes 1971, p. 55. ^ Carey, Brycchan (March 2003). "The extraordinary Negro': Ignatius Sancho, Joseph Jekyll, and the Problem of Biography" (PDF). Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies. 26 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1111/j.1754-0208.2003.tb00257.x. Retrieved 8 January 2013. ^ Phillips, Caryl (December 1996). "Director's Forward". Ignatius Sancho: an African Man of Letters. London: National Portrait Gallery. p. 12. ^ Jump up to: a b "Ignatius Sancho and Laurence Sterne" (PDF). Norton. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1985. pp. 256–257. ISBN 0852294239. ^ Ross 2001, p. 360. ^ Ross 2001, p. 361 ^ Sterne, Laurence. "The Project Gutenberg EBook of the Journal to Eliza and Various letters". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 10 February 2020. ^ Sclater, William Lutley (1922). Sterne's Eliza; some account of her life in India: with her letters written between 1757 and 1774. London: W. Heinemann. pp. 45–58. ^ Ross 2001, p. 415. ^ Ross 2001, p. 419. ^ Arnold, Catherine (2008). Necropolis: London and Its Dead. p. contents. ISBN 978-1847394934. Retrieved 11 November 2014 – via Google Books. ^ Ross 2001, pp. 419–420 ^ "Is this the skull of Sterne?". The Times. 5 June 1969. ^ Loftis, Kellar & Ulevich 2018, pp. 220, 227 ^ Loftis, Kellar & Ulevich 2018, p. 220. ^ Green, Carole (13 March 2009). "Laurence Sterne". BBC. Retrieved 4 March 2020. ^ "Laurence Sterne and the Laurence Sterne Trust". The Laurence Sterne Trust. Laurence Sterne Trust. Retrieved 4 March 2020. ^ Alas, Poor Yorick, Letters, The Times, 16 June 1969, Kenneth Monkman, Laurence Sterne Trust. "If we have reburied the wrong one, nobody, I feel beyond reasonable doubt, would enjoy the situation more than Sterne" ^ Suciu, Andreia Irina (2009). "The Sense of History in Malcolm Bradbury's Work". Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition (2): 152–160. ProQuest 757935757. ^ New 1972, p. 1083. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Washington 2017, p. 333. ^ New 1972, pp. 1083–1091. ^ Huntington Brown (1967), Rabelais in English literature pp. 190–191. ^ Cross (1908), chap. 8, The Publication of Tristram Shandy: Volumes I and II, p. 179. ^ Cash 1975, p. 296. ^ Cash 1975, p. 139. ^ Large 2017, p. 294. ^ Barbosa 1992, p. 28. ^ James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson…, ed. Malone, vol. II (London: 1824) p. 422. ^ de Voogd & Neubauer 2004, p. 118. ^ Pierce & de Voogd 1996, p. 15. ^ King 1995, p. 293. ^ Havard 2014, p. 586. ^ Descargues-Grant 2006 ^ Graham, Thomas (17 June 2019). "The best comic novel ever written?". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 26 February 2020. ^ Jump up to: a b Washington 2017, p. 334. ^ Gratchev & Mancing 2019, p. 139. ^ Jefferson 1951; Keymer 2002, pp. 4–11 ^ Viviès 1994, pp. 246–247. ^ Line, Anne. "Two Englishmen in France: A Comparison of Laurence Sterne's Book 7 of "Tristram Shandy" and "A Sentimental Journey"". University of Oslo Research Archive. University of Oslo. Retrieved 28 February 2020. ^ Ross 2001, p. 245. ^ Pfister 2001, p. 26. ^ Keymer 2009, p. xv. ^ Pfister 2001, p. 15. ^ New, Melvyn (2011). "'The Unknown World': The Poem Laurence Sterne Did Not Write". Huntington Library Quarterly. 74 (1): 85–98. doi:10.1525/hlq.2011.74.1.85. JSTOR 10.1525/hlq.2011.74.1.85. ^ Sterne, Laurence (1851). Works of Laurence Sterne. Bohn. References[edit] Barbosa, Maria José Somerlate (May 1992). "Sterne and Machado: Parodic and Intertextual Play in "Tristram Shandy" and "Memorias"". The Comparatist. 16: 24–48. doi:10.1353/com.1992.0014. JSTOR 44366842. Cash, Arthur H. (1975). Laurence Sterne: The Early & Middle Years. London: Methuen & Co. ISBN 041682210X. Clare, David (2016). "Under-regarded Roots: The Irish References in Sterne's Tristram Shandy". The Irish Review. 52 (1): 15–26. ISBN 9781782050629. Cross, Wilbur L. (1909). The Life and Times of Laurence Sterne. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 53. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Laurence Sterne Stillington Rev. Richard Levett. Descargues-Grant, Madeleine (2006). "The Obstetrics of Tristram Shandy". Études anglaises. 59 (4): 401–413. doi:10.3917/etan.594.0401. de Voogd, Peter; Neubauer, John, eds. (2004). The Reception of Laurence Sterne in Europe. London: Thoemmes Continuum. ISBN 0826461344. Retrieved 26 February 2020. Gratchev, Slav N.; Mancing, Howard, eds. (2019). Viktor Shklovsky's Heritage in Literature, Arts, and Philosophy. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 9781498597937. Retrieved 26 February 2020. Havard, John Owen (Summer 2014). "Arbitrary Government: "Tristram Shandy" and the Crisis of Whig History". ELH. 81 (2): 585–613. doi:10.1353/elh.2014.0015. JSTOR 24475634. S2CID 154424358. Howes, Alan B., ed. (1971). Laurence Sterne: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415134250. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Jefferson, D.W. (July 1951). "Tristram Shandy and the Tradition of Learned Wit". Essays in Criticism. I (3): 225–248. doi:10.1093/eic/I.3.225. Retrieved 26 February 2020. Keymer, Thomas (2009). The Cambridge Companion to Laurence Sterne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521849722. Keymer, Thomas (2002). Sterne, the Moderns, and the Novel. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199245924. King, Ross (Summer 1995). ""Tristram Shandy" and the Wound of Language". Studies in Philosophy. 92 (3): 291–310. JSTOR 4174520. Large, Duncan (2017). "'Lorenz Sterne' among German philosophers: reception and influence" (PDF). Textual Practice. 31 (2): 283–297. doi:10.1080/0950236X.2016.1228847. S2CID 171978531. Loftis, Sonya Freeman; Kellar, Allison; Ulevich, Lisa, eds. (2018). Shakespeare's Hamlet in an Era of Textual Exhaustion. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781315265537. Retrieved 4 March 2020. New, Melvyn (October 1972). "Sterne's Rabelaisian Fragment: A Text from the Holograph Manuscript". PMLA. 87 (5): 1083–1092. doi:10.2307/461185. JSTOR 461185. Pfister, Manfred (2001). Laurence Sterne. Devon: Northcote House Publishers. ISBN 074630837X. Pierce, David; de Voogd, Peter, eds. (1996). Laurence Sterne in Modernism and Postmodernism. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 9042000023. Retrieved 26 February 2020. Ross, Ian Campbell (2001). Laurence Sterne: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192122355. Sichel, Walter (1971). Sterne: A Study. New York: Haskell House Publishers. Retrieved 7 February 2020. Vapereau, Gustave (1876). Dictionnaire universal des littératures. Paris: Librairie Hachette. p. 1915. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Venn, John; Venn, J.A., eds. (1927). Alumni Cantabrigienses. London: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Viviès, Jean (1994). "A Sentimental Journey, or Reading Rewarded" (PDF). Bulletin de la société d'études anglo-américaines des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. 38. Retrieved 12 February 2020. Washington, Ellis (2017). The Progressive Revolution: History of Liberal Fascism through the Ages. Lanham: Hamilton Books. ISBN 9780761868507. Retrieved 26 February 2020. Further reading[edit] René Bosch, Labyrinth of Digressions: Tristram Shandy as Perceived and Influenced by Sterne's Early Imitators (Amsterdam, 2007) W. M. Thackeray, in English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1853; new edition, New York, 1911) Percy Fitzgerald, Life of Laurence Sterne (London, 1864; second edition, London, 1896) Paul Stapfer, Laurence Sterne, sa personne et ses ouvrages (second edition, Paris, 1882) H. D. Traill, Laurence Sterne, "English Men of Letters", (London, 1882) H. D. Traill. "Sterne". Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved 22 March 2018 – via Internet Archive. Texte, Rousseau et le cosmopolitisme littôraire au XVIIIème siècle (Paris, 1895) H. W. Thayer, Laurence Sterne in Germany (New York, 1905) P. E. More, Shelburne Essays (third series, New York, 1905) L. S. Benjamin, Life and Letters (two volumes, 1912) Rousseau, George S. (2004). Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-3454-1 External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laurence Sterne. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Laurence Sterne Wikisource has original works written by or about: Laurence Sterne Works by Laurence Sterne in eBook form at Standard Ebooks Works by Laurence Sterne at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Laurence Sterne at Internet Archive Works by Laurence Sterne at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Tristram Shandy (beta) In Our Time – BBC Radio 4 Laurence Sterne at the Google Books Search Laurence Sterne at Curlie "Tristram Shandy". Annotated, with bibliography, criticism. Ron Schuler's Parlour Tricks: The Scrapbook Mind of Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy & A Sentimental Journey. Munich: Edited by Günter Jürgensmeier, 2005 The Shandean: A Journal Devoted to the Works of Laurence Sterne (tables of contents available online) Laurence Sterne at the National Portrait Gallery, London The Laurence Sterne Trust Laurence Sterne at Library of Congress Authorities, with 182 catalogue records Anonymous parodies of the kinds of letters written by Elizabeth Draper to Laurence Sterne (as Yorick), MSS SC 4, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. 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Second Copy and Paste[]

Welcome to the website. If you're here, you're likely looking to find random words. Random Word Generator is the perfect tool to help you do this. While this tool isn't a word creator, it is a word generator that will generate random words for a variety of activities or uses. Even better, it allows you to adjust the parameters of the random words to best fit your needs.

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The above list is not comprehensive. There are literally hundreds of ways the Random Word Generator can be used. Please feel free to share the way you use this tool, and we always welcome suggestions on how we can improve it to serve you better. We are also interested in new word generators you'd be interested in us creating. Many of the tools on this website came from ideas from people like you who contacted us. Please take the time to explore the other random generators we have available which can be found in the right sidebar of the page.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the most common word?

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In the case of our random word generator, a random word is a word that is randomly chosen from the database of words we have in our generator. It's a word that you have no idea or control over appearing, so you aren't able to influence the resulting word in any way.

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Third Copy and Paste[]

Eastern Daily Press > News Ludham labrador finds message in a bottle

person Geraldine Scott 0

Published: 5:00 AM August 24, 2016 Updated: 10:43 AM October 10, 2020

Kate Gabriel with the message in a bottle found whilst walking her dog Molly on Waxham Beach. The me

Kate Gabriel with the message in a bottle found whilst walking her dog Molly on Waxham Beach. The message was from a young family in Belgium which Kate translated, she has now written back. Picture: James Bass - Credit: James Bass

It travelled more than 120 miles, as the crow flies, from Belgium and fulfilled one woman's dream.

Kate Gabriel with the message in a bottle found whilst walking her dog Molly on Waxham Beach.The mes

Kate Gabriel with the message in a bottle found whilst walking her dog Molly on Waxham Beach.The message was from a young family in Belgium which Kate translated, she has now written back.Picture: James Bass - Credit: James Bass And now a message in a bottle, adorned with stickers and precious family photographs, has prompted Kate Gabriel from Ludham to put pen to paper and make contact with the senders.

Mrs Gabriel, a freelance artist, was walking her black Labrador, Molly, on the beach when during a game of fetch Molly brought back the bottle.

Mrs Gabriel said: 'We go out walking every morning. usually in Ludham, where we live, but we went out to Waxham beach and she loves me throwing things for her. But she picked up this bottle, and I saw there was something inside it.

'I called her over and there was a message inside it. I've always wanted to find a message in a bottle.'

Here Are 23 of the Coolest Gifts for Holiday 2021

Here Are 23 of the Coolest Gifts for Holiday 2021 BEST TRENDING GIFTS | SPONSORED We Can Guess Your Education Level In 12 Questions We Can Guess Your Education Level In 12 Questions BON VOYAGED | SPONSORED Mrs Gabriel, 56, said when she got into the bottle - which was water-tight - she found a letter in an A4 plastic envelope sent from Blankenberge, on Belgium's coast, on June 29 this year. On the piece paper there were also stickers and photos.

'It was written in French but with my schoolgirl French I managed to translate it, it was quite simple,' she added. 'It said the writer had gone of holiday with his wife and baby, and there were photos so he must have had it ready before he left home.'

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The letter said if anyone found it, they should get in contact with the family, who live in Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, close to Brussels.

Mrs Gabriel who lives with her husband Tom has now written to the family to say their letter has been found, and is awaiting a response.

'We've done our bit now,' she said. 'It was a really sweet little letter, and to think it came all the way over here is brilliant.'

Have you discovered an interesting find on the region's coastline? Email geraldine.scott@archant.co.uk

Become a Supporter This newspaper has been a central part of community life for many years. Our industry faces testing times, which is why we're asking for your support. Every contribution will help us continue to produce local journalism that makes a measurable difference to our community.

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Fourth Copy and Paste[]

Steve Wynn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For the American singer/songwriter, see Steve Wynn (musician). Steve Wynn Huntley-Wynn-CROP.jpg Wynn in June 2008 Born Stephen Alan Weinberg January 27, 1942 (age 79) New Haven, Connecticut, U.S. Citizenship United States[1] Monaco[2] Alma mater University of Pennsylvania (B.A.) Occupation Former CEO of Mirage Resorts (1973–2000) Former CEO of Wynn Resorts (2002–2018) Former Republican National Committee finance chairman (2017–2018) Years active 1967–2018 Political party Republican (1995–present) Spouse(s) Elaine Pascal (divorced) Andrea Hissom ​(m. 2011)​ Children 2 Website wynnresorts.com Stephen Alan Wynn (né Weinberg; born January 27, 1942) is an American real estate developer and art collector. He is known for his involvement in the American luxury casino and hotel industry.[3] Early in his career he oversaw the construction and operation of several notable Las Vegas and Atlantic City hotels, including the Golden Nugget, the Golden Nugget Atlantic City, The Mirage, Treasure Island, the Bellagio, and Beau Rivage in Mississippi, and he played a pivotal role in the resurgence and expansion of the Las Vegas Strip in the 1990s. In 2000, Wynn sold his company, Mirage Resorts, to MGM Grand Inc., resulting in the formation of MGM Mirage (now MGM Resorts International). Wynn later took his company Wynn Resorts public in an initial public offering and was Wynn Resorts' CEO and Chairman of the Board until February 6, 2018, when he announced his resignation. He is a prominent donor to the Republican Party, and was the finance chair of the Republican National Committee from January 2017 to January 2018, when he resigned amid sexual misconduct allegations.[4][5]

Through Wynn Resorts, he has overseen the construction and development of several luxury resorts, opening Wynn Las Vegas in 2005, Wynn Macau in 2006, Encore Las Vegas in 2008, Encore at Wynn Macau in 2010 and Wynn Palace in Macau in 2016, and Wynn Everett near Boston which opened in June 2019 under the name Encore Boston Harbor. In 2006, Wynn was inducted into the American Gaming Association Hall of Fame.[6] As of September 2015, Wynn's net worth was estimated by Forbes at $2.4 billion, making him the 279th wealthiest American.[7] Steve Wynn collects fine art, including pieces by artists such as Picasso and Claude Monet.[8]

On February 6, 2018, Wynn stepped down as CEO of Wynn Resorts amid accusations of sexual misconduct including harassment, assault, and coercion. Wynn has denied the allegations.[9][10][11]


Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 2.1 Frontier and the Golden Nugget (1967–1989) 2.2 The Mirage and Treasure Island (1989–1997) 2.3 Bellagio and Beau Rivage debuts (1998–1999) 2.4 Wynn Las Vegas and Macau (2000–2007) 2.5 Encore hotels and other projects (2008–2018) 3 Political activities 4 Art collection 4.1 Le Rêve 5 Personal life 6 Accolades 7 Legal issues 8 Popular culture 9 References 10 External links Early life and education[edit] Steve Wynn was born Stephen Alan Weinberg in New Haven, Connecticut on January 27, 1942. His father, Michael, owned a chain of bingo parlors in the eastern United States. His mother Zelma (née Kutner), was from Maine.[12] Wynn’s father changed the family's last name in 1946 from "Weinberg" to "Wynn" when Steve was 4 years old "to avoid anti-Jewish discrimination".[3] Wynn was raised in Utica, New York, and graduated from The Manlius School, a private boys' school east of Syracuse, New York, in 1959.[13]

Steve Wynn received his Bachelor of Arts in English literature from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was a member of the Sigma Alpha Mu fraternity.[13] Shortly before Wynn's graduation in March 1963, his father died during heart surgery, leaving $350,000 in gambling debts. Wynn relinquished a position at Yale Law School to take charge of his family's bingo parlor in Waysons Corner, Maryland.[13]

Career[edit] Frontier and the Golden Nugget (1967–1989)[edit] See also: New Frontier Hotel and Casino, Golden Nugget Las Vegas, and The Atlantic Club Casino Hotel In 1967, Wynn and his family moved to Las Vegas where he purchased a small stake in the Frontier Hotel and Casino.[13] That year he met E. Parry Thomas, the president of the Bank of Las Vegas, which was the only bank at the time willing to extend loans to Las Vegas casinos,[13] and Thomas helped finance several of Wynn's early land deals.[13] Starting in 1968, Wynn also spent four years operating a wine and liquor importing company he had purchased.[citation needed]

In 1971, Wynn bought a controlling interest in the Golden Nugget Las Vegas, one of the oldest casinos in the city.[14] His company stake increased so that, in 1973, he became the majority shareholder, and the youngest casino owner in Las Vegas.[15] In 1977 he opened the Golden Nugget's first hotel tower, followed by several others. Frank Sinatra was a periodic headliner at the Golden Nugget,[16] and Wynn has since maintained a relationship with the Sinatra family, even naming a restaurant at Encore "Sinatra".[17]

In 1980, Wynn began construction on the Golden Nugget Atlantic City in Atlantic City, New Jersey. It was Atlantic City's first and only "locals casino" and the city's sixth casino after the city legalized gambling in 1976.[18][citation needed] Joel Bergman, who designed Wynn's other resorts, designed the Golden Nugget. Though at its opening it was the second smallest casino in the city, by 1983 it was the city's top earning casino.[19] Wynn sold the Atlantic City Golden Nugget in 1987 for $440 million.[13]

The Mirage and Treasure Island (1989–1997)[edit] See also: The Mirage and Treasure Island Hotel and Casino

Wynn's first major Las Vegas Strip casino was The Mirage. Wynn's first major casino on the Las Vegas Strip was The Mirage, which opened on November 22, 1989.[20] It was the first time Wynn was involved with the design and construction of a casino, and he financed the $630 million project largely with high-yield bonds issued by Michael Milken. Its construction is also considered noteworthy in that The Mirage was the first casino to use security cameras full-time on all table games.[21] The hotel became the main venue for the Siegfried & Roy show in 1990, and in 1993 the hotel hosted the Cirque du Soleil show Nouvelle Expérience.[22]

Wynn's next project, Treasure Island Hotel and Casino, opened in the Mirage's old parking lot on October 27, 1993, at an overall cost of $450 million. The establishment was the home of the first permanent Cirque du Soleil show in Las Vegas.[23]

In 1995, Wynn's company proposed to build the Le Jardin hotel-casino in the marina area if the state of New Jersey built a road that connected to the hotel-casino. The company had also agreed to allow Circus Circus Enterprises and Boyd Gaming to build casinos on the site, but later reneged on the agreement. While the road, called the Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector, was eventually built, Le Jardin was cancelled after the company was acquired in 2000 by MGM Grand Inc., which later built the Borgata, in a joint venture with Boyd Gaming, on the site.[24][25][26]

Bellagio and Beau Rivage debuts (1998–1999)[edit] See also: Bellagio (resort) and Beau Rivage (Mississippi)

Wynn's company Mirage Resorts oversaw the construction of the Bellagio, which at the time was the most expensive hotel in the world. Like Wynn's previous resorts, the Bellagio features an extensive water show on the Strip. On October 15, 1998, Wynn opened the even more opulent Bellagio, a $1.6 billion resort considered among the world's most spectacular hotels.[27] The architect was Jon Jerde of The Jerde Partnerships, and construction was undertaken by Wynn's company Mirage Resorts, Inc. When built, the Bellagio was the most expensive hotel in the world. In front of the hotel are the Fountains of Bellagio—shooting fountains choreographed to music that "dance" on the hotel's 8.5 acre man-made lake—which are now considered Las Vegas landmarks. The Bellagio is credited with starting a new spree of luxurious developments in Las Vegas. Among these developments include The Venetian, Mandalay Bay, and Paris Las Vegas.[28]

Wynn brought Mirage Resorts' style to Biloxi, Mississippi in 1999, where he oversaw development of the 1,835-room Beau Rivage. Themed to blend Mediterranean beauty with Southern hospitality, the resort was part of a building boom that established Biloxi as a regional tourism center along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Beau Rivage was originally the name Wynn wanted to give the Bellagio, though he had decided on Bellagio after vacationing in the Italian region of the same name.[29] Beau Rivage opened as the largest hotel-casino to be built outside Nevada.[30] The casino was initially located on a series of floating barges, as local law confined all casinos to mobile marine vessels at the time. The hotel, restaurants, and associated facilities were constructed on land.[31]

Wynn Las Vegas and Macau (2000–2007)[edit] See also: Wynn Resorts, Wynn Las Vegas, and Wynn Macau

Wynn Las Vegas Mirage Resorts was sold to MGM Grand Inc. for $6.6 billion ($21 per share) in June 2000 to form MGM Mirage. Five weeks before the deal was closed (April 27, 2000) Wynn purchased the Desert Inn for $270 million. He sold the Inn later that year.

Wynn took Wynn Resorts Limited public in 2002. Wynn became a billionaire in 2004, when his net worth doubled to $1.3 billion.[32] On April 28, 2005 he opened his most expensive resort at the time, the Wynn Las Vegas, on the site of the former Desert Inn. Built at a cost of $2.7 billion, it was the largest privately funded construction project in the nation as of 2005.[33]

Wynn successfully bid for one of three gaming concessions opened for tender in Macau.[34] This property, known as Wynn Macau, opened on September 5, 2006. In 2008, Wynn Macau became the fifth Asian hotel to receive the Mobil Five-Star award.[citation needed]

Encore hotels and other projects (2008–2018)[edit] Main articles: Encore Las Vegas, Wynn Palace, and Wynn Boston Harbor

The Encore Hotel in Las Vegas, showing the shops inside the buildings.

Encore Las Vegas (pictured) was opened in 2008 on the same property as Wynn Las Vegas, though they are separate hotels. In the summer of 2008, hiring began for Encore Las Vegas, the newest in Wynn's collection of resorts. The tower of Encore is modeled after the Wynn Las Vegas tower, and they share the same "property" though they are separate hotels.[35] After having started construction in 2006, the overall cost of the project equalled $2.3 billion.[36] Encore opened on December 22, 2008. As of December 31, 2012, Wynn and Encore Las Vegas employed approximately 9,000 full-time employees.[35] Encore at Wynn Macau, an expansion of Wynn Macau similar to the expansion of the Las Vegas property, opened on April 21, 2010.[37]

In 2016, Wynn opened the Wynn Palace in Cotai, Macao, PRC. It was previously approved by the Macau government in 2012.[38]

In September 2014, Wynn was awarded the license to build the Wynn Boston Harbor casino in the eastern Massachusetts city of Everett, near downtown Boston.[39]

In 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that dozens of people recounted a pattern of sexual misconduct by Wynn, including several former employees.[9][40] On February 6, 2018, Wynn stepped down as CEO of Wynn Resorts, though he denied all allegations.[41][42][9]

Political activities[edit] In the past, Wynn has financially supported both the Democratic[43] and the Republican Party, for example contributing $200,000 to the Republican Governors Association in 2013.[43] In 2011 he spoke in support of Nevada Senator Harry Reid.[44] Though he supported Barack Obama in the 2008 election, in 2011 he expressed disappointment with Obama's policies relating to economic issues.[45]

In December 2010, Prince Albert II of Monaco bestowed Monegasque citizenship to Wynn, an unusual act since Wynn did not meet the prerequisites. According to the Las Vegas Sun, Wynn was given the citizenship when he agreed to serve as outside director in Monaco QD International Hotels and Resorts Management, which is a joint venture between the governments of Monaco and Qatar. The organization buys and manages hotels in Europe, the Middle East and North America.[46]

Between 2012 and 2018, Wynn contributed more than $2.5 million to the Republican Governors Association and also donated $411,000 to the National Republican Senatorial Committee, $248,000 to the Republican National Committee, and $100,000 to the National Republican Congressional Committee.[47] In 2016, Wynn donated $833,000 to Republican Party joint fundraising committees.[48] After Donald Trump won the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Wynn was named a vice-chairman of Trump's inauguration committee.[49]

After the January 2017 inauguration of Donald Trump, Wynn was named finance chairman of the Republican National Committee.[48] In October 2017 The Wall Street Journal reported that Wynn, who has financial interests in China, lobbied President Trump on behalf of the Chinese government to return a Chinese dissident. [50][51] On January 28, 2018, Wynn resigned from the finance chairman position amid sexual misconduct allegations.[47][52] In May 2021, the Department of Justice ordered Wynn to register as a foreign agent of China.[53]

Art collection[edit]

Wynn is a collector of fine art, and has bought numerous works by artists such as Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Julian Hatton, Édouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Andy Warhol, and Johannes Vermeer. Close to the Wizard of Oz by Julian Hatton.[54] Wynn is known for amassing a large collection of fine art, often placing the pieces in his various casinos and hotels. In 2004, Wynn purchased Vermeer's A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals at a Sotheby's auction for $30 million. With the purchase, he became the first art collector to purchase a Vermeer painting in over 80 years.[55] Wynn later sold the painting to the Leiden Collection owned by Thomas Kaplan for the same price.[56]

In 2006, Wynn acquired J. M. W. Turner's Giudecca, La Donna Della Salute and San Giorgio for $35.8 million via an anonymous telephone auction. Although Wynn did not officially identify himself as the buyer, his identity was confirmed by two people acquainted with the transaction. Wynn purchased the painting from the St. Francis of Assisi Foundation, a White Plains-based nonprofit organization that supports Capuchin priests on their missionary trips.[57]

Steve Wynn's private art collection with specific commentary about his paintings by Claude Monet are highlighted in the 2008 film Monet's Palate[58] with Meryl Streep and distributed by American Public Television. Many of the collection's pieces were on display at the Bellagio. The collection was on display at the Nevada Museum of Art in Reno while the Wynn Las Vegas was being constructed and was installed in the resort shortly before it was opened. The Wynn Las Vegas gallery, which had charged an entrance fee, closed shortly after the start of 2006. The artwork from the former gallery was then scattered around the resort.[59]

In 2009, he spent $33.2 million on Rembrandt's Man with His Arms Akimbo, the auction record for the artist.[60]

Under the direction of Steve Wynn, Wynn Resorts acquired Jeff Koons's Tulips at auction in November 2012 for approximately $33.6 million.[61] In May 2014, Wynn acquired Popeye from the same artist for over $2 million, putting the work on display at Wynn Las Vegas.[62]

In February 2020, Wynn bought two Picasso paintings from Donald Marron's collection for $105 million: Woman with Beret and Collar and Jacqueline.[63]

Le Rêve[edit] Also in the collection is Le Rêve, the Picasso portrait that was the working name of Wynn's resort project. Wynn purchased the painting from an anonymous collector in a private sale in 2001.[64] In 2006, he reportedly was to sell it to Steven A. Cohen for $139 million, which would at that time have been the highest price paid for any piece of art. However, he put his elbow through the canvas while showing it to a group of guests.[65]

This canceled the sale, and after a $90,000 repair, the painting was estimated[by whom?] to be worth $85 million. Wynn sued his insurance company over the $54 million difference with the virtual selling price. The case was settled out of court in April 2007.[66][67][68][69]

In 2013, Wynn sold Le Rêve to Steven A. Cohen for $155 million.[70]

Art collection

Portrait of a Man with His Arms Akimbo (1658), Rembrandt.[71]


Fiori di Como (1998), Dale Chihuly.[71]


Tulips (2004), Jeff Koons.[71] Personal life[edit] Wynn married Elaine Farrell Pascal in 1963. They divorced in 1986, remarried in 1991, and divorced again in 2010.[72] Elaine Wynn was a director of the company's board for 13 years, ending in 2015.[73] They have two daughters, Kevyn and Gillian.[74] Kevyn was kidnapped in 1993[75] and Wynn paid $1.45 million in ransom for her safe return. The kidnappers were apprehended when one attempted to buy a Ferrari in Newport Beach, California, with cash. Kevyn was found unharmed several hours later.[76]

On April 30, 2011, Wynn married Andrea Danenza Hissom in a ceremony at the Wynn Las Vegas.[77] She is the mother of Alex Hissom and recording artist Nick Hissom,[78][79][80][81] great-niece of Ben Novack (developer of the Fontainebleau Miami Beach Hotel),[82] and cousin of Ben Novack Jr.

Steve Wynn suffers from the degenerative eye disease, retinitis pigmentosa, which he was diagnosed with in 1971.[83] In 2010, Wynn switched to a vegan diet after watching the documentary Eating by Mike Anderson.[84][85]

Accolades[edit] In May 2006, Time magazine included Wynn as one of the World's 100 Most Influential People.[86] Wynn was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts by President George W. Bush on October 30, 2006.[87] In November 2006, Wynn was inducted into the American Gaming Association Hall of Fame. He also received an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 2006, which was rescinded following Wynn's sexual misconduct allegations in 2018.[88][89][90] He has also received honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sierra Nevada College; The Culinary Institute of America; and Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island.[citation needed] Forbes magazine named him a "Captain of Capitalism" in 2007. Wynn was named to Institutional Investor's Best CEOs list in the All-America Executive Team Survey from 2008 through 2011.[91]

In March 2011, Barron's named Steve Wynn one of the 30 "World's Best CEOs."[92]

In November 2014, Wynn ranked 17th on Harvard Business Review's list of 100 best-performing CEOs in the world.

Legal issues[edit] See also: Me Too movement In 1991, Dennis Gomes, president of Wynn's Golden Nugget, left his position to join Donald Trump's Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City, New Jersey, receiving a $1 million bonus in lieu of equity. Wynn filed suit against Trump and Gomes for breach of contract, as Gomes was contracted to work at the Nugget until 1992. Gomes settled in 1994.[93][94] Also in 1991, Gomes alleged in a countersuit that Wynn used harsh language against Gomes, but Wynn's representatives denied the allegations.[95]

In 1997, Wynn sued Barricade Books for defamation over the catalog description of an unauthorized biography Running Scared by John L. Smith.[96] Wynn was initially awarded $3.2 million, forcing Barricade into bankruptcy. In 2001 the ruling was thrown out by the Supreme Court of Nevada.[97] A retrial was scheduled for 2004. The issue was settled between Wynn and New York publisher Lyle Stuart in a confidential agreement, and the case dismissed.[98]

In a legal battle over an attempt by Wynn-controlled Mirage to build a casino in Atlantic City, Donald Trump claimed in a lawsuit that Wynn used a private investigator as a double agent to secretly record conversations with Trump. The investigator, Louis Rodriguez, a former Los Angeles police officer and investigator for the IRS, claimed he had a change of heart because he felt that Trump used his efforts "in an immoral and unethical manner to cause financial harm" to Wynn and Mirage and thus turned "whistleblower." Wynn settled the lawsuit in 2000 and befriended Trump, who attended Wynn's wedding in 2011.[99]

Beginning in 2008, Wynn engaged in a dispute with Girls Gone Wild producer Joe Francis. In 2011, a Nevada district attorney prosecuted Francis for writing a bad check to cover a $2 million gambling debt owed to Wynn, but the judge dismissed the case for falling outside the six-month statute of limitations.[100][101] Wynn collected the debt in a separate civil case.[100] In response to the collection, Francis stated that Wynn threatened to kill him, prompting Wynn to file suit for defamation against Francis.[102] In February 2012, Clark County, Nevada, judge Mark Denton ruled that Francis damaged the reputation of Wynn and awarded Wynn $7.5 million in damages.[103] In September 2012, after Francis repeated the alleged threat on television and Wynn added a second defamation claim, a jury awarded Wynn $40 million in compensatory and punitive damages.[104] The judgment was amended to $19 million, after Wynn failed to prove that Francis could pay the original amount.[105]

In January 2012, Wynn's former business partner Kazuo Okada filed suit to gain access to company documents related to Wynn's pledge to donate $135 million to the University of Macau Development Foundation.[106] Wynn later accused Okada's company, Aruze, of violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, leading to a Department of Justice probe into Aruze's gifts of hotel rooms and other expenses to Philippine, South Korean, and Japanese gaming officials.[107][108] In a March 2013 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filing, Wynn noted that while the Okada dispute could cut into Wynn's profits, beyond an "informal" SEC inquiry into the Macau donation, there was no formal investigation underway.[109] In July 2013, the SEC announced that its investigation into the Macau donations was concluded and it would not pursue any enforcement action against Wynn or Wynn Resorts.[110]

In 2014, Wynn sued hedge fund manager James Chanos for slander after Chanos, at a Berkeley event, allegedly said Wynn violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.[111] Wynn's lawsuit was dismissed, with U.S. District Judge William Orrick III ruling that Chanos's remark was constitutionally protected speech.[112] Wynn was also ordered to pay Chanos' legal fees.[113] Wynn's subsequent appeal was rejected by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.[113]

Wynn has sought to weaken Nevada's anti-strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP) legislation.[114] He has publicly clashed with Yelp over the issue.[115]

Wynn has dealt with several legal issues related to sexual misconduct allegations that were covered by The Wall Street Journal in 2018.[41][42][9] One accusation came from a manicurist whom Wynn later paid a $7.5 million settlement.[42][9] In February 2018, Nevada regulators fined Wynn's company $20 million for failing to respond to sexual misconduct claims.[116] In April 2019, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission fined Wynn Resorts $35 million due to the gaming authority's findings that former company executives covered up sexual misconduct allegations against Steve Wynn [117]

Angelica Limcaco, a former salon manager at Wynn Las Vegas, filed a federal lawsuit in 2018 against Wynn Resorts and Steve Wynn claiming that she was fired, blacklisted and intimidated into silence after she elevated her concerns in 2006 to then-president of Wynn Las Vegas, Andrew Pascal. The case was appealed to the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals after Judge Miranda Du ruled in favor of Wynn Las Vegas, holding that the claim was not made within the statute of limitations and Angelica Limcaco's attorney, Jordan Matthews, argued that the time limits should not apply because Limcaco feared for her personal safety. Jordan Matthews filed a petition with the Ninth Circuit in March 2020 questioning the Nevada District Court's selection of Elayna Youchah as a magistrate judge. Elayna Youchah served as Wynn Las Vegas' lead counsel in the Limcaco case and Youchah was apparently selected just before Judge Du dismissed Limcaco's case. Matthews argued there was no disclosure about this apparent conflict of interest.[118] In May 2020, Judges William A. Fletcher, Jay S. Bybee and Paul J. Watford, heard oral argument on the Limcaco case in San Francisco, California. Jordan Matthews argued that that the lower court's decision should be reversed. The Massachusetts Gaming Commission Report confirmed that Wynn Las Vegas and Steve Wynn took steps to remove a rape victim immediately after Limcaco reported the rape and Limcaco was then threatened by her superior, Doreen Whennen, to remain silent.[119]

In March 2018, lawyer Lisa Bloom announced that she would represent a former dancer in a sexual misconduct suit against Wynn. In response, Wynn filed a defamation lawsuit against Bloom, pointing out that he is legally blind and could not "leer" at dancers.[120] In April 2018, Wynn filed a defamation lawsuit against his former employee Jorgen Nielsen after he made negative comments about Wynn's alleged sexual misconduct to The Wall Street Journal and ABC news.[121] In October 2019, Neilsen filed a lawsuit against Wynn Resorts, its CEO, Matthew Maddox, its former general counsel, Kim Sinatra, and Wynn Resorts former head of security, James Stern, for allegedly spying on him.[122] In April 2019, James Stern, a former FBI agent and the former executive vice president of corporate security for Wynn Resorts, resigned after testifying before the Massachusetts Gaming Commission to spying on Elaine Wynn and other employees.[123] According to court documents filed by Wynn's lawyers in 2018, Wynn had reached a settlement in 2006 with another former Wynn employee who had accused him of sexual misconduct. The settlement included a non-disclosure agreement. After the Wall Street Journal article came out, the woman announced to Wynn's lawyer that she intended to speak publicly about the settlement, and the lawyer reported her to the FBI for extortion; no charges were filed.[124]

In 2020, a Nevada judge ruled that a woman defamed Wynn when she reported in 2018 that he had raped her in the 1970s, noting that her testimony lacked veracity.[125]

In July 2020, a federal judge dismissed a lawsuit without prejudice against Wynn Resorts, Ltd., which was filed by nine anonymous employees. The federal judge said the women could not justify why it was necessary to file the lawsuit anonymously. Since Judge James C. Mahan dismissed the case without prejudice, the lawsuit can be refiled.[126]

Popular culture[edit] Andy Garcia's character in the Ocean's Trilogy, Terry Benedict, is loosely based on Wynn. In addition to owning and developing two of the same casinos as Wynn (The Mirage and the Bellagio), Benedict also has an extensive art collection. Benedict also alludes to the way that Kevyn Wynn's kidnappers were caught.[127][128][citation needed] Michael Connelly's book Void Moon features a casino that is so bad, a character claims to have heard even Steve Wynn did not see a way to turn it around. References[edit] ^ Steve Wynn profile – Forbes, Forbes.com. Retrieved September 29, 2015. ^ Green, Steve (December 27, 2010). "Steve Wynn gets citizenship from Monaco as part of joint venture - Las Vegas Sun Newspaper". lasvegassun.com. ^ Jump up to: a b "Steve Wynn Raising the stakes in Vegas". The Times. London. January 11, 2009. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2010. ^ "The Offshore Story of Steve Wynn". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. ^ ISENSTADT, Alex (27 January 2018). "RNC finance chair Steve Wynn resigns after sexual harassment allegations". Politico. Washington DC. Retrieved 27 January 2018. ^ Roman, James (2011-10-01). Chronicles of Old Las Vegas: Exposing Sin City's High-Stakes History. Museyon Inc. ISBN 978-0-9846334-1-8. ^ "Forbes 400: The List". Forbes. September 29, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-29. ^ Clifford-Cruz, Rebecca (2011-07-09). "7 of Steve Wynn's most notable art purchases - Las Vegas Sun Newspaper". lasvegassun.com. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Berzon, Alexandra; Kirkham, Chris; Bernstein, Elizabeth; O'Keeffe, Kate (January 27, 2018). "Dozens of People Recount Pattern of Sexual Misconduct by Las Vegas Mogul Steve Wynn". The Wall Street Journal. ^ Kirkham, Chris (February 7, 2019). "Steve Wynn to Step Down as Wynn Resorts CEO". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 29, 2019. ^ "Penn will remove 'Wynn Commons' name and rescind honorary degrees from Steve Wynn and Bill Cosby". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Retrieved February 12, 2018. ^ "Zelma Wynn Obituary (2003) San Diego Union-Tribune". Legacy.com. Retrieved 2021-07-21. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Munk, Nina (April 24, 2014). "Steve Wynn's Biggest Gamble". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 17, 2015. ^ Munk, Nina (24 April 2014). "Steve Wynn: The Uncrowned King of Las Vegas". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Steve Wynn's Vegas Vision Turned Into Reality". ABC News. ^ Stephen Holden (May 16, 1998). "Frank Sinatra Dies at 82; Matchless Stylist of Pop". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2013. ^ "New Wynn resort, Encore, opens in Vegas with Sinatra restaurant". The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 8, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2013. ^ Sheehan, Jack (1997). The Players: The Men Who Made Las Vegas. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. ^ "AC History - Casino Connection Atlantic City". Retrieved December 21, 2014. ^ "Biography: Stephen A. Wynn". PBS. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Arnold M. Knightly (February 25, 2007), Blink and you'll miss him, Las Vegas Review-Journal, Page 1E. ^ Critic, Richard Christiansen, Tribune Chief. "CIRCUS WITH AN ATTITUDE". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Norm Clarke (June 17, 2003). "'Mystere' worker recalls uncertain times during show's birth". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on August 10, 2003. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ AtlanticCityTripping.com. "The Tale of MGM Grand Atlantic City, Borgata and Le Jardin - Atlantic City Casino Travel Blog - AtlanticCityTripping.com". ^ When Atlantic City projects had to be big, so were the ideas ... and the failures The Press of Atlantic City May 14, 2010 [1] ^ Mirage Reshuffles Deal in Mega-Resort Plan Ocala Star-Banner January 21, 1998 [2] ^ "The spectacular fountain-fed pool at Bellagio". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ "Big, Bigger, and Bellagio" (PDF). Inland Architecture Magazine. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ "Mirage Resorts renames newest Las Vegas resort Bellagio". Business Wire. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Hopkins, AD (September 12, 1999). "Steve Wynn". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2015-05-27. ^ Belson, Ken; Rivlin, Gary (2005-09-07). "The Perils of Casinos That Float". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "MyWay". hp.myway.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2005. ^ "Wynn Vegas Opens". USA Today. April 28, 2005. Retrieved 2015-05-27. ^ Wiseman, Paul. (January 22, 2007) Macau leads Las Vegas in gambling –. Usatoday.com. ^ Jump up to: a b "Wynn Resorts LTD., Form 10-K, Filing Date March 1, 2013". secdatabase.com. Retrieved July 25, 2013. ^ Clarke, Norm (November 2, 2008). "NORM: Jacko turns down Wynn Encore gig". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved November 18, 2008. ^ Zeveloff, Julie. "THE INCREDIBLE LIFE OF STEVE WYNN: How A Small-Time Bingo Operator Became One Of The World's Biggest Hotel Moguls". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Wynn Resorts shifting table games to new Macau resort". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Wynn's $1.6B resort in Everett wins casino license". WCVB 5. 17 September 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2015. ^ "Stephen Wynn, Casino Mogul, Accused of Decades of Sexual Misconduct". The New York Times. 26 January 2018. ^ Jump up to: a b Everett Rosenfeld (February 6, 2018). "Steve Wynn is out as CEO of Wynn Resorts". CNBC. ^ Jump up to: a b c Stewart, James B. (May 10, 2018). "With Steve Wynn Gone, 'Queen of Las Vegas' Does Boardroom Battle". The New York Times. ^ Jump up to: a b Phillips, Frank. "Wynn's political gifts raise questions". www.bostonglobe.com. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 10 August 2014. ^ Schwartz, Ian. (July 18, 2011) Wynn Slams Obama On Business. RealClearPolitics. ^ Riley, Charles. "Casino magnate Steve Wynn trashes Obama". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Green, Steve (December 27, 2010). "Steve Wynn gets citizenship from Monaco as part of joint venture". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2015-08-17. ^ Jump up to: a b Alex Isenstadt, RNC finance chair Steve Wynn resigns after sexual harassment allegations, Politico (January 27, 2018). ^ Jump up to: a b Saunders, Debra J. "Steve Wynn named RNC finance chairman." Las Vegas Review-Journal, January 30, 2017. ^ "Adelson, Wynn among Trump's inaugural committee." Associated Press, November 15, 2016 ^ China’s Pursuit of Businessman Kicks Off Manhattan Caper Worthy of Spy Thriller, The Wall Street Journal, 2017-10-22 ^ The Chinese Have Cracked the Code for Communicating With Trump, Foreign Policy, 2017-10-23 ^ Cochrane, Emily; Vogel, Kenneth P. (28 January 2018). "Stephen Wynn Steps Down From R.N.C. Post After Sexual Misconduct Claims". The New York Times. ^ Herbert, Geoff (27 May 2021). "DOJ ordering CNY native Steve Wynn to register as foreign lobbyist (report)". The Post-Standard. Retrieved 27 May 2021. ^ "Part II: Steve Wynn discusses the future of his business". wn.com. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2011. Wynn owns an extensive art collection including paintings by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Julian Hatton... ^ "7 of Steve Wynn's Most Notable Art Purchases". Las Vegas Sun. July 9, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2015. ^ "Wynn sells rare Dutch painting". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Who Paid $35.8 Million for J. M. W. Turner's View of Venice?". New York Times. April 8, 2006. Retrieved January 19, 2015. ^ Las Vegas Sun Explore passion (March 24, 2008) ^ Peterson, Kristen (2008-04-10). "Vegas, say goodbye to Guggenheim - Las Vegas Sun Newspaper". lasvegassun.com. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Vogel, Carol (December 18, 2009). "Rembrandt Buyer Is Said to Be Stephen Wynn". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2009. ^ Leach, Robin (February 1, 2013). "Steve Wynn's $33.6 million Jeff Koons sculpture Tulips goes on display in Las Vegas". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved June 30, 2013. ^ Frank, Robert (May 15, 2014). "Well blow me down! Steve Wynn pays $28M for Popeye". CNBC. Retrieved 2015-01-19. ^ Crow, Kelly (2020-02-24). "Steve Wynn Pays $105 Million for Pair of Picassos". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Paumgarten, Nick (November 23, 2006). "The $40-Million Elbow". New Yorker Magazine. Retrieved July 15, 2013. ^ "Lloyd's Sued on Payout for Hurt Picasso". New York Times. January 12, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2010. ^ Nora Ephron (October 16, 2006). "My Weekend in Vegas". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ "Steve Wynn's Bad Dream". The Smoking Gun. January 11, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ "Wynn Settles Suit Over Painting Cohen Coveted". FINalternatives. March 26, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Marc Spiegler (January 17, 2007). "Kasino-Milliardär Wynn fordert Schadenersatz für selbst zerstörten Picasso". artnet Magazin. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Vines, Richard and Katya Kazakina (March 26, 2013). "Cohen Buys Picasso's 'Le Reve' From Wynn for $155 Million". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 15, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c Zeveloff, Julie. "Steve Wynn Paid $33.7 Million For Jeff Koons' Gigantic 'Tulips' Sculpture". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Wynns Complete Divorce in Las Vegas". Dealbook. January 14, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2012. ^ Sellers, Patricia. "Elaine Wynn loses—and there's more to come". Fortune. ^ Los Angeles Confidential: "Generous Sister Act Gillian and Kevyn Wynn" by Evelyn Crowley retrieved December 21, 2014 ^ Las Vegas Review Journal report. Reviewjournal.com (November 20, 2004). ^ "Casino Owner's Daughter Tells of Kidnaping". Los Angeles Times. 1994-05-05. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Casino mogul Wynn weds Andrea Hissom in Las Vegas". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "The Daily Pennsylvanian :: Nick Hissom: model student". Thedp.com. Retrieved 5 November 2014. ^ Independent Online: "Harry, the hustler and the dead naked girl" September 3, 2012 |"Before becoming the second Mrs Wynn, Andrea had lived in London with her first husband, Texan banker Robert Hissom, a former polo-playing friend of Prince Charles." ^ Las Vegas Review-Journal: "London tabloid sees costly split" by Norm Clarke February 18, 2009 |"Hissom's father, financier Victor Danenza, fled to France in 1976 from New York after the FBI investigated him in connection with fraudulent stock market deals." ^ Orfanides, Effie (2018-01-26). "Andrea Hissom, Steve Wynn's Wife: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Wynn switching restaurant's name". Las Vegas Review-Journal. October 28, 2012. Her great uncle, Ben Novack, and grandfather, Joe Novack, built the Fontainebleau hotel on Miami Beach, which opened in 1954. ^ Chris Smith. "Clash of the Titans". New Yorker. ^ Katsilometes, John (November 4, 2010). "Steve Wynn: Viva Las Vegan". Las Vegas Weekly. Retrieved November 12, 2010. ^ "The Rise of the Power Vegans". BusinessWeek. November 4, 2010. ^ "The 2006 TIME 100 - TIME". TIME.com. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ Personnel Announcement. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov (October 30, 2006). ^ "Wynn Resorts, Limited, Chairman of the Board & Chief Executive Officer". Magento. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2016. ^ Saul, Stephanie (Feb 1, 2018). "University of Pennsylvania Takes Away Steve Wynn's Honors. And Bill Cosby's, Too". New York Times. ^ "After Sexual Misconduct Claims, Vegas Mogul Steve Wynn Fell Fast". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ The All-America Executive Team Best CEOs Archived July 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, InstitutionalInvestor.com ^ Barron's Staff, [3], Barron's, Mar. 26, 2011 ^ "Investigator Probed Casinos, Then Promoted Them (Obituary for Dennis Gomes)". The Wall Street Journal. February 25, 2012. ^ David Johnston (March 23, 1991). "Casino Rivals Trump And Wynn Take Trade-secret Battle To Court". Philadelphia Inquirer. ^ Priscilla Painton, The Great Casino Salesman, Time, June 2001 ^ Carvajal, Doreen (8 October 1997). "Defamation Suit Leaves Small Publisher Near Extinction". New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2015. ^ Reid, Calvin (9 October 2001). "Libel Ruling Reversed; Barricade Eyes Purchases". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 27 April 2015. ^ "Settlement reached in Wynn suit". Las Vegas Sun. June 29, 2004. Retrieved 2015-05-27. ^ George Anastasia (March 12, 2000). "Donald Trump Vs. Steve Wynn In A Real-life Spy Tale A Recent Battle Between The Casino Moguls Is Filled With Claims Of Money-laundering, Double Agents And High-level Secret Snooping". Philly.com. ^ Jump up to: a b "Steve Wynn Vs. Joe Francis: Anatomy of a $40 Million Smackdown". The Hollywood Reporter. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Ashley Powers, Feud between casino mogul and porn purveyor enters L.A. court, Los Angeles Times, September 7, 2012 ^ "Joe Francis Catches $21 Million Break in War with Steve Wynn". TMZ. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Wynn awarded $7.5 million in case against soft-porn king – News – ReviewJournal.com. Lvrj.com. ^ Steve Wynn's $20-million award against Joe Francis likely to grow – latimes.com. Latimesblogs.latimes.com (September 11, 2012). ^ "Why a $40 Million Verdict Against 'Girls Gone Wild' Creator Joe Francis Was Cut". The Hollywood Reporter. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Peter J. Henning (February 27, 2012). "War at Wynn Opens A Legal Can of Worms". New York Times. ^ Rubenfeld, Samuel (24 February 2012). "High Tide: From A Wynn FCPA Probe To RBA Knowledge". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ "Wynn Resorts' Okada Lawsuit Halted for Criminal Probe". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013. ^ Linda Sandler (March 4, 2013). "Wynn Says Okada Fight Over Share Purchase May Cut Profit". Bloomberg News. ^ Hannah Dreier (July 8, 2013). "Federal officials end inquiry into casino operator Wynn Resorts' donation in Macau". Washington Post. ^ Holodny, Elena (26 September 2014). "Steven Wynn Is Suing Jim Chanos For Alleged Slander". Business Insider. Retrieved 27 April 2015. ^ Andrew Chung, U.S. judge throws out slander lawsuit filed by casino mogul Wynn, Reuters (December 17, 2014). ^ Jump up to: a b Linette Lopez, "Steve Wynn just lost his slander appeal against Jim Chanos", Business Insider (March 28, 2017). ^ John L. Smith, Wynn has much to gain by a weakened anti-SLAPP law, Las Vegas Review-Journal (April 21, 2015). ^ Maxwell Tani, Yelp attacks casino mogul Steve Wynn for supporting legislation that makes it easy to sue people over bad reviews, Business Insider (May 20, 2015). ^ Hsu, Tiffany; Hadi, Mohammed (2019-04-02). "Wynn Leaders Helped Hide Sexual Misconduct Allegations Against Company's Founder, Report Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Wynn Resorts Fined $35 Million But Keeps License for Massachusetts Casino". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-07-19. ^ Brewer, Contessa (2020-03-11). "Wynn whistleblower argues she can't get a fair shake in court". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-06-28. ^ "Angelica Limcaco v. Steve Wynn". United States Courts for the Ninth Circuit. Retrieved 2020-07-19. ^ "Steve Wynn sues for defamation, claims 'leering' accusations false". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 2018-04-06. Retrieved 2018-07-09. ^ Meyer, Zlati (2018-04-30). "Steve Wynn sues ex-casino worker for defamation over sexual misconduct allegations". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-05-03. ^ "Former Wynn hairstylist and whistleblower sues casino company, alleges secret salon spy operation". The Nevada Independent. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 2020-07-19. ^ "Wynn Resorts security chief out of a job after spying disclosure of Elaine Wynn". Boston Herald. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 2020-07-19. ^ "Steve Wynn settled with second woman over sex allegations". Associated Press. 2018-03-19. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Judge: Woman defamed Steve Wynn with police report of rape". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-05-11. ^ "Sexual harassment lawsuit against Steve Wynn dismissed". Las Vegas Review Journal. 18 July 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-19. ^ Susman, Gary (7 December 2011). "25 Things You Didn't Know About 'Ocean's 11'". Moviefone. ^ Steven Soderbergh (2001). Ocean's Eleven (DVD). Warner Bros. & Village Roadshow Pictures. ASIN B000P0J0BK. ISBN 0790768623. OCLC 49030412. If you should be picked up buying a $100,000 sports car in Newport Beach, I'm going to be extremely disappointed External links[edit]

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Fifth Copy and Paste[]

Canton System From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For the system of military recruitment, see Canton System (Prussia). Canton System Chinese 一口通商 showTranscriptions

Canton factories c. 1850

Scene in China (1852, p.Vignette)[1] The Canton System (1757–1842; Chinese: 一口通商; pinyin: Yīkǒu tōngshāng, lit. "Single [port] trading relations") served as a means for Qing China to control trade with the West within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou). The protectionist policy arose in 1757 as a response to a perceived political and commercial threat from abroad on the part of successive Chinese emperors.

From the late seventeenth century onwards, Chinese merchants, known as Hongs (Chinese: 行; pinyin: háng), managed all trade in the port. Operating from the Thirteen Factories located on the banks of the Pearl River outside Canton, in 1760, by order of the Qing Qianlong Emperor, they became officially sanctioned as a monopoly known as the Cohong. Thereafter Chinese merchants dealing with foreign trade (Chinese: 洋行; pinyin: yángháng, lit. "ocean traders", i.e. "overseas traders" or "foreign traders") acted through the Cohong under the supervision of the Guangdong Customs Supervisor (Chinese: 粵海關部監督; pinyin: Yuèhǎi guānbù jiàn dù; Jyutping: jyut6 hoi2 gwaan1 bou6 gaam1 duk1), informally known as the "Hoppo", and the Governor-general of Guangzhou and Guangxi.


Contents 1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Implementation of the Cohong 1.3 Flint Affair 1.4 Evaluation 1.5 The First Opium War 2 Abolition 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 Further reading History[edit] Origins[edit] At the start of his reign, the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722) faced a number of challenges, not the least of which was to integrate his relatively new dynasty with the Chinese Han majority.[2] The Manchu-led Qing dynasty had only come to power in 1644, replacing the Ming dynasty. Support for the previous rulers remained strong, particularly in the south of the country.[3]

Kangxi twice banned all maritime trade for strategic reasons, to prevent any possible waterborne coup attempt.[4] Several rebellions took place, including one led by Ming loyalist Koxinga and separately the Rebellion of the Three Feudatories,[5] which led to the capture of Taiwan in 1683. Once the rebellions had been quelled, in 1684 Kangxi issued an edict:

Now the whole country is unified, everywhere there is peace and quiet, Manchu-Han relations are fully integrated so I command you to go abroad and trade to show the populous and affluent nature of our rule. By imperial decree I open the seas to trade.[6] Hǎiguān (海关), or customs stations, were subsequently opened at Canton, Xiangshan County (Zhuhai and Zhongshan) and Macau in Guangdong Province; Foochow (Fuzhou), Nantai (Southern Fuzhou) and Amoy (Xiamen) in Fujian Province; Ningpo (Ningbo) and Dinghai County (Dinghai District) in Zhejiang Province; and Huating County (Huating Town, Shanghai), Chongque (No longer exists) and Shanghai proper in Jiangsu Province.[7] One year later in 1685, foreign traders received permission to enter Chinese ports.[8]

International cargoes arriving in Canton in 1741 hide Great Britain France Holland Sweden Denmark East India Company Itinerant traders Number of Ships 4 1 2 2 4 1 Tonnage 2,250 350 1,450 1,450 2,600 850 Cannon 112 12 60 64 120 36 Crew 400 100 300 220 510 150 Black Tea (piculs) 7,194 8,000 8,000 5,000 Green Tea (piculs) 6,151 1,450 550 1,400 Raw Silk (piculs) 28 250 Woven Silk (bales) 11,074 6,000 7,000 7,500 Nankeens 15,699 Chinaware (chests) 844 600 800 400 Tutenag1 (piculs) 1,800 1An alloy of copper, nickel and zinc source: Gao (2003) The Qing Court under Kangxi set up a trading company in Canton in 1686 to deal with Western trade known as the Yánghuò Háng (洋货行, literally "Ocean Trading House"). This dealt with both imports and exports with sub-offices responsible for taxes and import/export declarations respectively. When a ship arrived or departed, the Chinese merchant involved would visit the Ocean Trading House to pay any taxes due. This set up became the basis for the later Thirteen Factories through which all foreign trade would be conducted.[9]

Although many ports on the coasts of China were open, most Westerners chose to trade at Canton as it is closer to Southeast Asia and it was not profitable to go further north.[10]

In 1704, the Baoshang system was established. This system licensed trade with Western merchants: licences were granted to a number of Chinese merchants as long as they helped to collect duties from the Westerners, successfully aligning trading interests with the government's revenue collection. This was the predecessor for the later Cohong system.[11]

Although he now had the foreign trade situation under control, Kangxi's liberal attitude towards religion led to a clash between Chinese and Christian spiritual authority. After Pope Clement XI issued his 1715 papal bull Ex illa die, which officially condemned Chinese religious practices,[12] Kangxi expelled all missionaries from China except those employed in a technical or scientific advisory capacity by the Qing Court.[13]

Implementation of the Cohong[edit] Main article: Cohong In 1745, Kangxi's grandson the Qianlong Emperor ordered his court to implement changes to the Ocean Trading House system. Thereafter a local Chinese merchant stood as guarantor for every foreign trading vessel entering Canton Harbour and took full responsibility for the ship and its crew along with the captain and supercargo. Any tax payments due from a foreign trader were also to be guaranteed by the local merchant. With permission from the authorities, in 1760 Hong merchant Pan Zhencheng (潘振成) and nine others hong specializing in the western trade joined together to become the intermediary between the Qing government and the foreign traders. The role of the new body would be to purchase goods on behalf of the foreigners and deduct any taxes and duties payable for imports and exports; at the same time, according to Guangdong customs records (粤海關志, Yuèhǎi guān zhì), they established a new harbour authority to deal with tribute from Thailand and handle pay for the troops involved in trade as well as manage domestic maritime trade in the South China Sea.[14] Henceforth, the Cohong possessed imperial authority to levy taxes on the foreign merchants as they saw fit.

Flint Affair[edit] See also: James Flint (merchant) In 1757 the Qianlong Emperor banned all non-Russian ships from the ports of northern China.[15] Russians were however not allowed to use Canton. All customs offices other than the one at Canton were closed. The emperor did this after receiving a petition regarding the presence of armed Western merchant ships all along the coast. The Western merchant ships were protected from pirates, and guarded against, by the Guangdong Navy, which was subsequently increased in strength.[16]

Thereafter all such commerce was to be conducted via a single port under what became known as the Canton System (In Chinese: Yī kŏu tōngshāng (一口通商 literally, "Single-port commerce system"). During Qianlong's reign Qing foreign trade policies had a political aspect largely based on real or imagined threats from abroad; historian Angela Schottenhammer suggests that although the single port trading policy arose in part from lobbying by officials and Chinese merchants, it was more likely triggered by the activities of Flint in what became known as The Flint Affair (Hóng Rènhuī Shìjiàn, 洪任辉事件).[15] Although the foreign merchants knew of the Cohong restriction, they had to balance a breach of etiquette against the risks of seeing their substantial investments in China destroyed by bribery and corruption. Englishman James Flint, a long-term East India Company supercargo and a fluent speaker of Chinese,[17] became the focus of the impetus for change. Flint had been repeatedly warned to remain in Canton during the trading season and not to venture north in search of commercial opportunities. Despite this, back in 1755 Flint, together with Company director Samuel Harrison, sailed north to explore possibilities for trade in Zhejiang. In 1759, he again journeyed north to file a complaint in Ningbo over corruption amongst the officials in Canton. He had hoped that his criticisms of the current system would usher in a new era of free trade but instead, not only did his plan to open up the ports of Zhejiang fail, the Qing authorities reacted by imposing further restrictions on foreign trade.[9] Worse still, Flint found himself deported to Macau where he was imprisoned between December 1759 and November 1762.[18]

The emperor and his officials became alarmed at this breach of normal protocol and realized that something had to be done to control the situation.[5] The Qing court's previous laxity had effectively allowed a coterie of Chinese merchants and local officials to take over foreign commerce in the southern port according to their own best financial interests.[19] One of the fundamental tenets of traditional Chinese diplomacy prohibited contact with Beijing except in the case of tributary envoys from other states.[20]

The new rules, known as the Vigilance Towards Foreign Barbarian Regulations (Fángfàn wàiyí guītiáo, 防范外夷规条) or Five Counter-Measures Against the Barbarians (Fáng yí wŭ shì, 防夷五事) contained the following provisions:

1) Trade by foreign barbarians in Canton is prohibited during the winter. 2) Foreign barbarians coming to the city must reside in the foreign factories under the supervision and control of the Cohong. 3) Chinese citizens are barred from borrowing capital from foreign barbarians and from employment by them. 4) Chinese citizens must not attempt to gain information on the current market situation from foreign barbarians 5) Inbound foreign barbarian vessels must anchor in the Whampoa Roads and await inspection by the authorities.[21] Evaluation[edit] The discovery of underground missionary activity in the late 1750s may have contributed to the Emperor's decision to concentrate foreigners in a single port. In his edict to establish the restriction, the Emperor specifically mentioned concerns about the strategic value of the interior regions to foreigners: Chinese government consultants were aware of Western military technological superiority and Westerners' record of having "set out to conquer every land they visited". The Kangxi Emperor, considering the Westerners to be highly successful, intrepid, clever, and profitable, already had concerns early on about the serious omnidirectional Western threat to China, if China ever became weakened.[22]

The Canton system did not completely affect Chinese trade with the rest of the world as Chinese merchants, with their large three-masted ocean junks, were heavily involved in global trade. By sailing to and from Siam, Indonesia and Philippines, they were major facilitators of the global trading system; the era was even described by Carl Trocki as a "Chinese century" of global commerce.[23]

Under the system, the Qianlong Emperor restricted trade with foreigners on Chinese soil only for licensed Chinese merchants (Cohongs), while the British government on their part issued a monopoly charter for trade only to the British East India Company. This arrangement was not challenged until the 19th century when the idea of free trade was popularised in the West.[24] The concept of restricting trade to a single port was also used in Western countries such as Spain and Portugal. Chinese merchants could also trade freely and legally with Westerners (Spanish and Portuguese) in Xiamen and Macao, or with any country when trade was conducted through ports outside China such as Manila and Batavia.[25] Although shipping was regulated, the Qianlong emperor's administration was diligent in accommodating the requisites of Western merchants. They hired a growing body of Western assistants for the Customs Office to help manage their fellow countrymen. The order to stay in Macao during the winter was lifted, tax was exempted on food, drink and basic supplies for Western merchants, and protections were granted to Westerners and their property.[26] Chinese merchants were actually banned by Qing law from suing foreigners in Chinese courts, as the Qianlong Emperor believed that good treatment of foreigners was essential for the government. In 1806, Chinese officials compromised with the British on the murder of a Chinese man by British seamen, as Westerners refused to be punished under Chinese law, even though local citizens vigorously protested what they considered a miscarriage of justice. In 1816, the Jiaqing Emperor dismissed a British embassy for their refusal to kowtow, but he sent them an apologetic letter with gifts (the British simply discarded them in a storeroom without reading).[27] The Qianlong Emperor granted Lord Macartney a golden scepter, an important symbol of peace and wealth, but this was dismissed by the British as worthless.[28] The British, on the other hand, ignored Chinese laws and warnings not to deploy military forces in Chinese waters. The British landed troops in Macao despite a Chinese and Portuguese agreement to bar foreign forces from Macao, and then in the War of 1812 attacked American ships deep in the inner harbour of Canton (the Americans had previously robbed British ships in Chinese waters as well). These, in combination with the British support to Nepal during their invasion of Tibet and later the British invasion of Nepal after it became a Chinese tributary state, led the Chinese authorities to become highly suspicious of British intentions.[29]

The First Opium War[edit] Main article: First Opium War

Canton in 1830 A seemingly insatiable western demand for tea from China towards the end of the 18th century caused a significant deficit in the British balance of trade. The Chinese had little interest in Western goods and would only accept silver in payment. This spurred the East India Company to sell opium grown on its plantations in India to independent traders, who shipped it on to China to sell in exchange for silver, despite the fact that opium was already illegal in China.[30] China tried to stop the importation of this opium, but the traders persisted. Chinese attempts to regain control led to the First Opium War, when British gunboat diplomacy quickly forced China to sign an unequal treaty of trade.[31][32]

Abolition[edit] Following the signature of the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, British subjects are "allowed to reside, for the purpose of carrying on their mercantile pursuits, without molestation or restraint" at Canton, Shanghai, Amoy (Xiamen), Ningpo (Ningbo) and Foochow (Fuzhou). In addition, Article V of the Treaty specifically abolishes the Canton system, allowing British merchants, and eventually all foreign merchants, to deal with whomever they please in the newly-opened ports.[33]

In 1859 Canton's trade moved to a new site on the reclaimed sandbank of Shamian Island, a short distance west of the former factories. By then much of the foreign trade with China had shifted to the by then British colony of Hong Kong (acquired under the Treaty of Nanking), and to the northern ports, with their advantage of proximity to Beijing as well as the Grand Canal and the Yellow River, both vital arteries in the internal trade of Qing China. By 1866, only 18 foreign firms still had offices in Canton while there were only 60 foreign residents excluding British Indians and tidewaiters (who boarded boats as part of custom's inspections) employed by Sir Robert Hart's Imperial Maritime Customs Service.[34]

Legacy[edit] The Massachusetts General Hospital, McLean Hospital, the Boston Athenæum, the Bunker Hill Monuments, public libraries, and an orphanage were built with the proceeds of opium smuggling.[35]

By the time Hong Kong became a full-fledged British Colony, many of the merchants would be led by a newer generation of western hong merchants. Many of these companies would become the backbone of the young Hong Kong economy.

See also[edit] Century of humiliation Economic history of China before 1912 Old China Trade Hongs Howqua Thirteen Factories Wu Tingju Notes and references[edit] Notes

^ "Scene in China" (PDF). The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: A Miscellany of Missionary Information for Young Persons. Wesleyan Missionary Society. IX: Vignette. 1852. Retrieved 24 February 2016. ^ Li, X. (2012). China at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-59884-415-3. ^ Mote, F.W. (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 850. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7. ^ Schottenhammer 2007, p. 31. ^ Jump up to: a b Li 1977, p. 363. ^ 今海内一统,寰宇宁谧,满汉人民相同一体,令出洋贸易,以彰富庶之治,得旨开海贸易 from 周膺; 吴晶 (2011). Research study on Hangzhou Trade in the Late Qing and Republican Eras (晚清民国杭商研究) (in Chinese). Hangzhou Publishing House (杭州出版社). ISBN 978-7-80758-499-5. ^ Schottenhammer 2010, p. 126. ^ Taipei Research Institute (台北研究院) (1987). "Fifth compilation of Ming/Qing historical material (明清史料戊编)". 1. Taipei: Zhonghua Publishing Bureau (台北: 中华书局).: 102. ^ Jump up to: a b 吴伯娅 (January 1, 2010). "A Complaint about the Single Port Trading Policy (一纸诉状与一口通商)" (in Chinese). Chinese Culture MediaCentre (中国文化传媒网). Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014. ^ Po, Chung-yam (28 June 2013). Conceptualizing the Blue Frontier: The Great Qing and the Maritime World in the Long Eighteenth Century (PDF) (Thesis). Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. p. 186. ^ Ronald C. Po (2018). The Blue Frontier: Maritime Vision and Power in the Qing Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-1108424615. ^ Mantienne 1999, p. 178. ^ Dun 1969, p. 22. ^ Gao & Feng 2003, p. 109. ^ Jump up to: a b Schottenhammer 2007, p. 33. ^ Po, Chung-yam (28 June 2013). Conceptualizing the Blue Frontier: The Great Qing and the Maritime World in the Long Eighteenth Century (PDF) (Thesis). Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. pp. 147–149. ^ Stifler 1938. ^ Shurtleff & Aoyagi 2012, p. 1711. ^ Farmer, Edward L. (1963), "James Flint Versus the Canton Interest (1755–1760)", Papers on China, East Asian Research Center, Harvard University (17): 38–66 ^ Fairbank & Têng 1941. ^ "Western Cultural Policies during the Qianlong and Jiaqing Eras (乾嘉时期清廷的西方文化政策)" (in Chinese). Historychina.net (中華歷史网). Retrieved January 30, 2014. ^ Po, Chung-yam (28 June 2013). Conceptualizing the Blue Frontier: The Great Qing and the Maritime World in the Long Eighteenth Century (PDF) (Thesis). Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. pp. 174, 183, 200–201. ^ Po, Chung-yam (28 June 2013). Conceptualizing the Blue Frontier: The Great Qing and the Maritime World in the Long Eighteenth Century (PDF) (Thesis). Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. pp. 149–150. ^ Conrad Schirokauer; Miranda Brown (2012). A Brief History of Chinese Civilization (4, illustrated ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 221. ISBN 978-0495913238. ^ Peer Vries (2015). State, Economy and the Great Divergence: Great Britain and China, 1680s-1850s. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 353–354. ISBN 978-1472526403. ^ Po, Chung-yam (28 June 2013). Conceptualizing the Blue Frontier: The Great Qing and the Maritime World in the Long Eighteenth Century (PDF) (Thesis). Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. pp. 203–204. ^ Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2000). The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. pp. 136–137. ISBN 039324251X. ^ Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2000). The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. p. 104. ISBN 039324251X. ^ Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2000). The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. pp. 126, 129–131. ISBN 039324251X. ^ Fay, Peter Ward, The Opium War, 1840–1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the early part of the nineteenth century and the way by which they forced the gates ajar (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2000) pp.73-4 ^ Julia Lovell, The Opium War: Drug, Dreams and the Making of China (2011) ^ Peter Ward Fay, Opium War, 1840-1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century and the War by Which They Forced Her Gates (1998) ^ "The Government of China having compelled the British Merchants trading at Canton to deal exclusively with certain Chinese Merchants called Hong Merchants (or Cohong) who had been licensed by the Chinese Government for that purpose, the Emperor of China agrees to abolish that practice in future at all Ports where British Merchants may reside, and to permit them to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please". ^ Dennys 1867, p. 138. ^ Martha Bebinger (July 31, 2017). "How Profits From Opium Shaped 19th-Century Boston". WBUR. Bibliography

Dennys, N.B. (1867). The Treaty Ports of China and Japan: A Complete Guide to the Open Ports of Those Countries, Together with Peking, Yedo, Hongkong and Macao. London: Trubner. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-108-04590-2. Dun, Jen Li (Trans.) (1969). China in transition, 1517–1911. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Inc. ISBN 0-442-04778-9. Fairbank, J.K.; Têng, S.Y. (1941). "On the Ch'ing Tributary System". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 6 (2): 135–246. doi:10.2307/2718006. JSTOR 2718006. Li, V. H. (1977). Law and Politics in China's Foreign Trade. Asian law series. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-80387-6. Mantienne, Frédéric (1999). Monseigneur Pigneau de Béhaine (in French). Paris: Editions Eglises d'Asie. ISBN 978-2-914402-20-0. Schottenhammer, Angela (2007). The East Asian Maritime World 1400–1800: Its Fabrics of Power and Dynamics of Exchanges. East Asian economic and socio-cultural studies. Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3-447-05474-4. Schottenhammer, Angela (2010). Trading networks in early modern East Asia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06227-5. Stifler, S.R. (1938). "The language of students of the East India Company's Canton factory". Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 69. Gao, Shujuan(高淑娟); Feng, Bin (冯斌) (2003). Comparative Outline of Chinese and Japanese Foreign Policy: Central Trade Policy in the Final Years of the Imperial Era (中日对外经济政策比较史纲: 以封建末期贸易政策为中心). Qinghua University Chinese Economic Historiography Series (清华大学中国经济史学丛书) (in Chinese). Qinghua University Publishing (清华大学出版社). ISBN 978-7-302-07517-2. Shurtleff, W.; Aoyagi, A. (2012). History of Soy Sauce (160 CE To 2012). Soyinfo Center. ISBN 9781928914440. Further reading[edit] Louis Dermigny, La Chine et l'Occident: le commerce à Canton au XVIIIe siècle, 1719–1833. Paris: SEVPEN, 1964. Downs, Jacques M. (1997). The Golden Ghetto: The American Commercial Community at Canton and the Shaping of American China Policy, 1784-1844. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press; reprinted, Hong Kong University Press, 2014. ISBN 0934223351. Liu Yong, The Dutch East India Company's Tea Trade with China, 1757–1781. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007. ISBN 90-04-15599-6 Hoh-Cheung Mui and H. Lorna Mui, The Management of Monopoly: A Study of the East India Company's Conduct of Its Tea Trade, 1784–1833. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1984. ISBN 0-7748-0198-0 Johnson, Kendall A. (2017). The New Middle Kingdom: China and the Early American Romance of Free Trade. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421422510. Paul Arthur Van Dyke. The Canton Trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast, 1700–1845. Hong Kong University Press, 2005. ISBN 962-209-749-9. Paul Arthur Van Dyke. Merchants of Canton and Macao: Politics and Strategies in Eighteenth-Century Chinese Trade. Hong Kong University Press.2011. ISBN 978-988-8028-91-7 Zhuang Guotu, Tea, Silver, Opium, and War: The International Tea Trade and Western Commercial Expansion into China in 1740–1840. Xiamen: Xiamen University Press, 1993. hidevte European and American trade in Qing China Topics Canton System Cohong East India Company James Flint Old China Trade Thirteen Factories Chinese Hongs Ewo Hong Howqua Foreign Hongs Augustine Heard & Co. Augustine Heard Albert Heard Dent & Co. Lancelot Dent John Dent Dodwell & Co. Gibb, Livingston & Co. Hugh Bold Gibb Jardine, Matheson & Co. William Jardine James Matheson John Abel Smith Magniac & Co. Daniel Beale Thomas Beale Thomas Chay Beale Hollingworth Magniac Olyphant & Co. David Olyphant Robert Morrison Olyphant Russell & Company Robert Bennet Forbes John Cleve Green Abiel Abbot Low William Henry Low Samuel Russell Russell Sturgis Shewan, Tomes & Co. Robert Shewan David Sassoon & Co. David Sassoon E.D. Sassoon & Co. Elias David Sassoon Chinese Officials Lin Zexu Key Locations Amoy Canton Foochow Hong Kong Macau Shanghai hidevte Economic history of China Imperial China (pre-1912) Han dynasty Song dynasty Ming dynasty Modern China (1912–present) 1912–1949 1949–present Industrialization Economic Reform Technological and industrial history History of transport in China (History of rail transport) History of agriculture in China China–United States trade war Contemporary economy Hong Kong Macau Taiwan History of foreign trade in China History of trade of the People's Republic of China Old China Trade Silk Road Canton System China Association Chinese exploration hidevte Qing dynasty topics History Early (1616–1683) Jurchen unification Later Jin Seven Grievances Later Jin invasion of Joseon Qing invasion of Joseon Transition from Ming to Qing Battle of Shanhai Pass Great Clearance Revolt of the Three Feudatories High Qing (1683–1839) Sino-Russian border conflicts Dzungar–Qing Wars Chinese expedition to 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Sixth Copy and Paste[]

Estonia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the Republic of Estonia. For other uses, see Estonia (disambiguation). "Eesti" redirects here. For the language, see Estonian language. Coordinates: 59°N 26°E Republic of Estonia Eesti Vabariik (Estonian) Flag of Estonia Flag Coat of arms of Estonia Coat of arms Anthem: "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" (English: "My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy") MENU0:00 EU-Estonia.svg Show globe Show map of Europe Show all Location of Estonia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) – [Legend] Capital and largest city Tallinna 59°25′N 24°45′E Official language and national language Estonianb Ethnolinguistic groups (2021) 68.8% Estonians 24.2% Russians 2.0% Ukrainians 0.8% Belarusians 0.6% Finns 3.4% Others Religion (2011[1]) 64.87% No religion 34.03% Christianity —19.87% Orthodoxy —12.02% Lutheranism —2.14% Other Christian 1.10% Others Demonym(s) Estonian Government Unitary parliamentary republic • President Alar Karis • Prime Minister Kaja Kallas • Speaker of the Riigikogu Jüri Ratas Legislature Riigikogu Independence from Russia and Germany • Autonomy 12 April 1917 • Declared 24 February 1918 • Recognised 2 February 1920 • Soviet occupation 16 June 1940 • German occupation 1941–1944 • Soviet occupation 1944–1991 • Restored independence 20 August 1991 • Joined the EU 1 May 2004 Area • Total 45,339[2] km2 (17,505 sq mi) (129thd) • Water (%) 5.16 (as of 2015)[3] Population • 2021 estimate Neutral increase 1,330,068[4] • Census 1,294,455[5] • Density 30.9/km2 (80.0/sq mi) (148th) GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate • Total $49.644 billion[6] • Per capita $41,892[6] (41st) GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate • Total $34.97 billion[6] (97th) • Per capita $27,101[6] (39th) Gini (2020) Steady 30.5[7] medium HDI (2019) Increase 0.892[8] very high · 29th Currency Euro (€) (EUR) Time zone UTC+02:00 (EET) • Summer (DST) UTC+03:00 (EEST) Driving side right Calling code +372 ISO 3166 code EE Internet TLD .eec The Supreme Court and one ministry are based in Tartu. According to the Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language. Also .eu, shared with other member states of the European Union. Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland, the larger islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and over 2,200 other islands and islets on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea,[9] covering a total area of 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi). The capital city Tallinn and Tartu are the two largest urban areas of the country. The Estonian language is the autochthonous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its people, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.

The land of what is now modern Estonia has been inhabited by humans since at least 9,000 BC. Ancient Estonians were one of the last "pagan" civilisations in Europe to adopt Christianity following the Papal-sanctioned Livonian Crusade in the 13th century.[10] After centuries of successive rule by the Teutonic Order, Denmark, Sweden, and the Russian Empire, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the mid-19th century. This culminated in the 24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence from the then warring Russian and German Empires, and, after the end of World War I, in the 1918–1920 War of Independence where Estonians were able to repel the Bolshevik Russian invasion and successfully defended their newborn freedom. Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, as a result of the worldwide Great Depression Estonia also briefly experienced rule by decree during the politically non-violent "era of silence" in 1934–1938. During World War II, despite having declared its neutrality, Estonia was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by Stalinist Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR). After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. Following the bloodless Estonian "Singing Revolution" of 1988–1990, the nation's de facto independence was restored on 20 August 1991.

Estonia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index.[11] The sovereign state is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. It has a population of 1.3 million, and is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, and the United Nations Security Council. Estonia has consistently ranked highly in international rankings for quality of life,[12] education,[13] digitalization of public services[14][15] and the prevalence of technology companies.[16]


Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 Prehistory and Viking Age 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Swedish Era 2.4 Russian era and national awakening 2.5 Independence 2.6 Second World War 2.7 Soviet occupation period 2.8 Restoration of independence 2.9 Territorial history timeline 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Law 4.2 Foreign relations 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy 5.1 Economic indicators 5.2 Historic development 5.3 Transport 5.4 Resources 5.5 Industry and environment 5.6 Trade 6 Demographics 6.1 Society 6.2 Urbanization 6.3 Religion 6.4 Languages 6.5 Education and science 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Literature 7.3 Media 7.4 Architecture 7.5 Holidays 7.6 Cuisine 7.7 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links 13.1 Government 13.2 Travel 13.3 Maps 13.4 General information Name[edit] Main article: Name of Estonia The name Estonia has been connected to Aesti, first mentioned by Roman historian Tacitus around 98 AD. Some historians believe he was directly referring to Balts (i.e., not Finnic-speaking Estonians), while others have proposed that the name applied to the entire Eastern Baltic region.[17] The Scandinavian sagas referring to Eistland were the earliest sources to use the name in its modern meaning.[18] The toponym Estland/Eistland has been linked to Old Norse aust, austr meaning "the east".[19] In Finnish, Estonia is known as Viro, originating from the historic independent county Virumaa. In a similar vein, the corresponding Latvian word Igaunija derives from Ugandi County.[20]

History[edit] Main article: History of Estonia Prehistory and Viking Age[edit] Main articles: Ancient Estonia and Viking Age in Estonia

Bronze Age stone-cist graves Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating, it was settled around 11,000 years ago.[21]

The earliest human habitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.[22] Around 4900 BC, ceramics appear of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.[23] Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared; this included new activities like primitive agriculture and animal husbandry.[24]


Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna[25] The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements.[26] A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC.[21][27] The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes.[28]

The middle Iron Age produced threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when "Estonian Vikings" defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar.[29][30] Similar threats appeared to the east, where Russian principalities were expanding westward. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu. This foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in 1061, followed by their raid on Pskov.[31][32][33][34] Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians. In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden at the time.[35][36]

Estonia could be divided into two main cultural areas. The coastal areas of Northern and Western Estonia had close overseas contacts with Scandinavia and Finland, while inland Southern Estonia had more contacts with Balts and Pskov.[37] The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts.[38] Prehistoric or medieval harbour sites have been found on the coast of Saaremaa.[38] Estonia also has a number of graves from the Viking Age, both individual and collective, with weapons and jewellery including types found commonly throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia.[38][39]


Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian: maakond), which consisted of multiple parishes. A parish was led by elders and centered on a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts. By the 13th century, Estonia consisted of eight major counties: Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Läänemaa, Revala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga. Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose cooperation against foreign threats.[40][41]

There is little known of early Estonian pagan religious practices. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of the Oeselians. Spiritual practices were guided by shamans, with sacred groves, especially oak groves, serving as places of worship.[42][43]

Middle Ages[edit] Main articles: Livonian Crusade, Terra Mariana, and Danish Estonia

Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade In 1199, Pope Innocent III declared a crusade to "defend the Christians of Livonia".[44] Fighting reached Estonia in 1206, when Danish king Valdemar II unsuccessfully invaded Saaremaa. The German Livonian Brothers of the Sword, who had previously subjugated Livonians, Latgalians, and Selonians, started campaigning against the Estonians in 1208, and over next few years both sides made numerous raids and counter-raids. A major leader of the Estonian resistance was Lembitu, an elder of Sakala County, but in 1217 the Estonians suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day, where Lembitu was killed. In 1219, Valdemar II landed at Lindanise, defeated the Estonians in the Battle of Lyndanisse, and started conquering Northern Estonia.[45][46] The next year, Sweden invaded Western Estonia, but were repelled by the Oeselians. In 1223, a major revolt ejected the Germans and Danes from the whole of Estonia, except Reval, but the crusaders soon resumed their offensive, and in 1227, Saaremaa was the last county to surrender.[47][48]

After the crusade, the territory of present-day Southern Estonia and Latvia was named Terra Mariana, but later it became known simply as Livonia.[49] Northern Estonia became the Danish Duchy of Estonia, while the rest was divided between the Sword Brothers and prince-bishoprics of Dorpat and Ösel–Wiek. In 1236, after suffering a major defeat, the Sword Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order becoming the Livonian Order.[50] In the next decades there were several uprisings against foreign rulers on Saaremaa. In 1343, a major rebellion started, known as the St. George's Night Uprising, encompassing the whole area of Northern Estonia and Saaremaa. The Teutonic Order finished suppressing the rebellion in 1345, and the next year the Danish king sold his possessions in Estonia to the Order.[51][52] The unsuccessful rebellion led to a consolidation of power for the Baltic German minority.[53] For the subsequent centuries they remained the ruling elite in both cities and the countryside.[54]

Kuressaare Castle, square stone keep with one square corner tower and red tile roof Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s During the crusade, Reval (Tallinn) was founded, as the capital of Danish Estonia, on the site of Lindanise. In 1248 Reval received full town rights and adopted the Lübeck law.[55] The Hanseatic League controlled trade on the Baltic Sea, and overall the four largest towns in Estonia became members: Reval, Dorpat (Tartu), Pernau (Pärnu), and Fellin (Viljandi). Reval acted as a trade intermediary between Novgorod and Western Hanseatic cities, while Dorpat filled the same role with Pskov. Many guilds were formed during that period, but only a very few allowed the participation of native Estonians.[56] Protected by their stone walls and alliance with the Hansa, prosperous cities like Reval and Dorpat repeatedly defied other rulers of Livonia.[57] After the decline of the Teutonic Order after its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, and the defeat of the Livonian Order in the Battle of Swienta on 1 September 1435, the Livonian Confederation Agreement was signed on 4 December 1435.[58]

The Reformation in Europe began in 1517, and soon spread to Livonia despite opposition by the Livonian Order.[59] Towns were the first to embrace Protestantism in the 1520s, and by the 1530s the majority of the gentry had adopted Lutheranism for themselves and their peasant serfs.[60][61] Church services were now conducted in vernacular language, which initially meant German, but in the 1530s the first religious services in Estonian also took place.[60][62]

During the 16th century, the expansionist monarchies of Muscovy, Sweden, and Poland–Lithuania consolidated power, posing a growing threat to decentralised Livonia weakened by disputes between cities, nobility, bishops, and the Order.[60][63]

Swedish Era[edit] Main article: Swedish Estonia

"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana". In 1558, Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Russia invaded Livonia, starting the Livonian War. The Livonian Order was decisively defeated in 1560, prompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. The majority of Livonia accepted Polish rule, while Reval and the nobles of Northern Estonia swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king. Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late 1570s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in 1583 with Russian defeat.[63][64] As result of the war, Northern Estonia became Swedish Duchy of Estonia, Southern Estonia became Polish Duchy of Livonia, and Saaremaa remained under Danish control.[65]

In 1600, the Polish–Swedish War broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in 1629 with Sweden gaining Livonia, including the regions of Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia.[66] Danish Saaremaa was transferred to Sweden in 1645.[67] The wars had halved the Estonian population from about 250–270,000 people in the mid 16th century to 115–120,000 in the 1630s.[68]

While serfdom was retained under Swedish rule, legal reforms took place which strengthened peasants' land usage and inheritance rights, resulting this period's reputation of the "Good Old Swedish Time" in people's historical memory.[69] Swedish king Gustaf II Adolf established gymnasiums in Reval and Dorpat; the latter was upgraded to Tartu University in 1632. Printing presses were also established in both towns. In the 1680s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius, who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.[70] The population of Estonia grew rapidly for a 60–70-year period, until the Great Famine of 1695–97 in which some 70,000–75,000 people died – about 20% of the population.[71]

Russian era and national awakening[edit] Main articles: Governorate of Estonia, Governorate of Livonia, and Estonian national awakening

The front page of Perno Postimees, the first Estonian language newspaper In 1700, the Great Northern War started, and by 1710 the whole of Estonia was conquered by the Russian Empire.[72] The war again devastated the population of Estonia, with the 1712 population estimated at only 150,000–170,000.[73] In 1721, Estonia was divided into two governorates: the governorate of Estonia, which includes the northern part of Estonia (such as the Tallinn area), and the southern governorate of Livonia, which extends to the northern part of Latvia.[74] Russian administration restored all the political and landholding rights of Baltic Germans.[75] The rights of Estonian peasants reached their lowest point, as serfdom completely dominated agricultural relations during the 18th century.[76] Serfdom was formally abolished in 1816–1819, but this initially had very little practical effect; major improvements in rights of the peasantry started with reforms in the mid-19th century.[77]

The Estonian national awakening began in the 1850s as the leading figures started promoting an Estonian national identity among the general populace. Its economic basis was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. In 1857 Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing the first Estonian language newspaper and began popularising the denomination of oneself as eestlane (Estonian).[78] Schoolmaster Carl Robert Jakobson and clergyman Jakob Hurt became leading figures in a national movement, encouraging Estonian peasants to take pride in themselves and in their ethnic identity.[79] The first nationwide movements formed, such as a campaign to establish the Estonian language Alexander School, the founding of the Society of Estonian Literati and the Estonian Students' Society, and the first national song festival, held in 1869 in Tartu.[80][81][82] Linguistic reforms helped to develop the Estonian language.[83] The national epic Kalevipoeg was published in 1862, and 1870 saw the first performances of Estonian theatre.[84][85] In 1878 a major split happened in the national movement. The moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while the radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.[81]


Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening. In the late 19th century, Russification began, as the central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire.[80] The Russian language was used throughout the education system and many Estonian social and cultural activities were suppressed.[85] Still, some administrative changes aimed at reducing the power of Baltic German institutions did prove useful to Estonians.[80] In the late 1890s, there was a new surge of nationalism with the rise of prominent figures like Jaan Tõnisson and Konstantin Päts. In the early 20th century, Estonians started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.[86]

During the 1905 Revolution, the first legal Estonian political parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification. During the unrest, peasants and workers attacked manor houses. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some 500 people were executed and hundreds more jailed or deported to Siberia.[87][88]

Independence[edit] Main articles: History of Estonia (1920–39), Estonian Declaration of Independence, Estonian War of Independence, and Era of Silence See also: Nordic identity in Estonia photograph of crowd around flag raising Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic. In 1917, after the February Revolution, the governorate of Estonia was expanded to include Estonian speaking areas of Livonia and was granted autonomy, enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.[89] Bolsheviks seized power during the October Revolution, and disbanded the Provincial Assembly. However the Provincial Assembly established the Salvation Committee, and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival, the committee declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February 1918, and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans were forced to hand over power to the Provisional Government on 19 November.[90][91]

On 28 November 1918 Soviet Russia invaded, starting the Estonian War of Independence.[92] The Red Army came within 30 km from Tallinn, but in January 1919, the Estonian Army, led by Johan Laidoner, went on a counter-offensive, ejecting Bolshevik forces from Estonia within a few months. Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring, the Estonian army, in co-operation with White Russian forces, advanced into Russia and Latvia.[93][94] In June 1919, Estonia defeated the German Landeswehr which had attempted to dominate Latvia, restoring power to the government of Kārlis Ulmanis there. After the collapse of the White Russian forces, the Red Army launched a major offensive against Narva in late 1919, but failed to achieve a breakthrough. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed between Estonia and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.[93][95]


Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence In April 1919, the Estonian Constituent Assembly was elected. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia as a parliamentary democracy.[96][97] In 1924, the Soviet Union organised a communist coup attempt, which quickly failed.[98] Estonia's cultural autonomy law for ethnic minorities, adopted in 1925, is widely recognised as one of the most liberal in the world at that time.[99] The Great Depression put heavy pressure on Estonia's political system, and in 1933, the right-wing Vaps movement spearheaded a constitutional reform establishing a strong presidency.[100][101] On 12 March 1934 the acting head of state, Konstantin Päts, declared a state of emergency, under the pretext that the Vaps movement had been planning a coup. Päts, together with general Johan Laidoner and Kaarel Eenpalu, established an authoritarian regime during the "era of silence", when the parliament did not reconvene and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political movement for the time being.[102] A new constitution was adopted in a referendum, and elections were held in 1938. Both pro-government and opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, as all political parties remained suspended under continued state of emergency.[103] The Päts regime was relatively benign compared to other authoritarian regimes in interwar Europe, and the regime never used violence against political opponents.[104]

Estonia joined the League of Nations in 1921.[105] Attempts to establish a larger alliance together with Finland, Poland, and Latvia failed, with only a mutual defence pact being signed with Latvia in 1923, and later was followed up with the Baltic Entente of 1934.[106][107] In the 1930s, Estonia also engaged in secret military co-operation with Finland.[108] Non-aggression pacts were signed with the Soviet Union in 1932, and with Germany in 1939.[105][109] In 1939, Estonia declared neutrality, but this proved futile in World War II.[110]

Second World War[edit] Main articles: Estonia in World War II and Occupation of the Baltic states

The Red Army entering Estonia in 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty On 23 August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The pact's secret protocol divided Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland into spheres of influence, with Estonia belonging to the Soviet sphere.[111] On 24 September, the Soviet Union presented an ultimatum, demanding that Estonia sign a treaty of mutual assistance which would allow Soviet military bases into the country. The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September.[112] In May 1940, Red Army forces in bases were set in combat readiness and, on 14 June, the Soviet Union instituted a full naval and air blockade on Estonia. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by the Soviet Air Force. On 16 June, USSR presented an ultimatum demanding completely free passage of the Red Army into Estonia and the establishment of a pro-Soviet government. Feeling that resistance was hopeless, the Estonian government complied and, on the next day, the whole country was occupied.[113][114] On 6 August 1940, Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union as the Estonian SSR.[115]

The USSR established an oppressive regime. Most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards. Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June 1941 with mass deportation of around 11,000 people to Siberia, among whom more than half perished in inhumane conditions.[116][117] When Operation Barbarossa (accompanied by Estonian guerrilla soldiers called "Forest Brothers"[118]) began against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 in the form of the "Summer War" (Estonian: Suvesõda), around 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army, fewer than 30% of whom survived the war. Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.[119][120] Many Estonians went into the forest, starting an anti-Soviet guerrilla campaign. In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia. USSR evacuated Tallinn in late August with massive losses, and capture of the Estonian islands was completed by German forces in October.[121]


The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944 Initially, many Estonians were hopeful that Germany would help to restore Estonia's independence, but this soon proved to be in vain. Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland, with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs.[122] About a thousand Estonian Jews who had not managed to leave were almost all quickly killed in 1941. Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani, and Soviet prisoners of war perished.[123] German occupation authorities started recruiting men into small volunteer units but, as these efforts provided meagre results and military situation worsened, a forced conscription was instituted in 1943, eventually leading to formation of the Estonian Waffen-SS division.[124] Thousands of Estonians who did not want to fight in the German military secretly escaped to Finland, where many volunteered to fight together with Finns against Soviets.[125]

The Red Army reached the Estonian borders again in early 1944, but its advance into Estonia was stopped in heavy fighting near Narva for six months by German forces, including numerous Estonian units.[126] In March, the Soviet Air Force carried out heavy bombing raids against Tallinn and other Estonian towns.[127] In July, the Soviets started a major offensive from the south, forcing the Germans to abandon mainland Estonia in September, with the Estonian islands being abandoned in November.[126] As German forces were retreating from Tallinn, the last pre-war prime minister Jüri Uluots appointed a government headed by Otto Tief in an unsuccessful attempt to restore Estonia's independence.[128] Tens of thousands of people, including most of the Estonian Swedes, fled westwards to avoid the new Soviet occupation.[129]

sailing ship filled with refugees Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944) Overall, Estonia lost about 25% of its population through deaths, deportations and evacuations in World War II.[130] Estonia also suffered some irrevocable territorial losses, as the Soviet Union transferred border areas comprising about 5% of Estonian pre-war territory from the Estonian SSR to the Russian SFSR.[131]

Soviet occupation period[edit] Main articles: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Occupation of the Baltic states, and Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–1991) Thousands of Estonians opposing the second Soviet occupation joined a guerrilla movement known as the "Forest Brothers". The armed resistance was heaviest in the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in the mid-1950s.[132] The Soviets initiated a policy of collectivisation, but as peasants remained opposed to it a campaign of terror was unleashed. In March 1949 about 20,000 Estonians were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards.[116][133]

The Soviet Union began Russification, with hundreds of thousands of Russians and people of other Soviet nationalities being induced to settle in Estonia, which eventually threatened to turn Estonians into a minority in their own land.[134] In 1945 Estonians formed 97% of the population, but by 1989 their share of the population had fallen to 62%.[135] Economically, heavy industry was strongly prioritised, but this did not improve the well-being of the local population, and caused massive environmental damage through pollution.[136] Living standards under the Soviet occupation kept falling further behind nearby independent Finland.[134] The country was heavily militarised, with closed military areas covering 2% of territory.[137] Islands and most of the coastal areas were turned into a restricted border zone which required a special permit for entry.[138] That is why Estonia was quite closed until the second half of the 1960s, when gradually Estonians began to watch Finnish television in the northern parts of the country due to a good signal range, thus getting a better picture of the way of life behind the Iron Curtain. Watching Finnish television was unauthorized, but nevertheless it was watched with a special device made for this purpose.[139]

The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the majority of other Western countries considered the annexation of Estonia by the Soviet Union illegal.[140] Legal continuity of the Estonian state was preserved through the government-in-exile and the Estonian diplomatic representatives which Western governments continued to recognise.[141][142]

Restoration of independence[edit] Main article: Singing Revolution

Baltic Way in Estonia

The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989. The introduction of perestroika in 1987 made political activity possible again, starting an independence restoration process known as the Singing Revolution.[143] The environmental Phosphorite War campaign became the first major protest movement against the central government.[144] In 1988, new political movements appeared, such as the Popular Front of Estonia, which came to represent the moderate wing in the independence movement, and the more radical Estonian National Independence Party, which was the first non-communist party in the Soviet Union and demanded full restoration of independence.[145] Reformist Vaino Väljas became the first secretary of the Estonian Communist Party, and under his leadership on 16 November 1988, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Sovereignty Declaration, asserting the primacy of Estonian laws over Union laws. Over the next two years, almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead, issuing similar declarations.[146][147] On 23 August 1989, about 2 million Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians participated in a mass demonstration, forming the Baltic Way human chain across the three republics.[148] In 1990, the Congress of Estonia was formed as the representative body of Estonian citizens.[149] In March 1991, a referendum was held where 78.4% of voters supported independence, and during the coup attempt in Moscow, Estonia declared restoration of independence on 20 August,[150] which is now an Estonian national holiday known as the Day of Restoration of Independence.[151]

Soviet authorities recognised Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia was admitted into the United Nations.[152] The last units of the Russian army left Estonia in 1994.[153]

In 1992 radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to a market economy, including privatisation and currency reform.[154] Estonia has been a member of the WTO since 13 November 1999.[155] Estonian foreign policy since independence has been oriented toward the West, and in 2004 Estonia joined both the European Union and NATO.[156] On 9 December 2010, Estonia became a member of OECD.[157] On 1 January 2011, Estonia joined the eurozone and adopted the EU single currency as the first former Soviet Union state.[158] Estonia was elected as a member of the UN Security Council 2020–21.[159]

Territorial history timeline[edit]

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Estonia

Topographic map of Estonia Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland, on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 metres (164 ft) and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 metres (1,043 ft). There is 3,794 kilometres (2,357 mi) of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. Estonia's number of islands and islets in the Baltic Sea is estimated at some 2,222, and the country has 2,355 including those in lakes. Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.[160][161] A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali is found on Saaremaa, Estonia.

Estonia has over 1,400 lakes. Most are very small, with the largest, Lake Peipus, being 3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi); it is the fifth largest lake in Europe,[162] and also the largest trans-boundary lake in the whole continent. There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu (162 km or 101 mi), Pärnu (144 km or 89 mi), and Põltsamaa (135 km or 84 mi).[160] Estonia has numerous fens and bogs. Forest land covers 50% of Estonia.[163] The most common tree species are pine, spruce and birch.[164]

Phytogeographically, Estonia is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests.[165]

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Estonia Estonia is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate. The climate is more continental in the eastern part of the country and more maritime in the western part, especially on the islands. Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from 17.8 °C (64.0 °F) on the islands to 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) inland in July, the warmest month, and from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) on the islands to −5.3 °C (22.5 °F) inland in February, the coldest month. The average annual temperature in Estonia is 6.4 °C (43.5 °F).[166] Annual average precipitation is 662 mm.[167] The average for the year is 1829.6 hours of sunshine.[168] The duration of sunshine is highest in coastal areas and lowest inland in northern Estonia.

Seventh Copy and Paste[]

Law[edit] Main articles: Law of Estonia and Constitution of Estonia The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law, establishing the constitutional order based on five principles: human dignity, democracy, rule of law, social state, and the Estonian identity.[200] Estonia has a civil law legal system based on the Germanic legal model.[201] The court system has a three-level structure. The first instance are county courts which handle all criminal and civil cases, and administrative courts which hear complaints about government and local officials, and other public disputes. The second instance are district courts which handle appeals about the first instance decisions.[202] The Supreme Court is the court of cassation, and also conducts constitutional review, it has 19 members.[203] The judiciary is independent, judges are appointed for life, and can be removed from office only when convicted by court for a criminal deed.[204] The Estonian justice system has been rated among the most efficient in the European Union by the EU Justice Scoreboard.[205]

Foreign relations[edit] Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia and Diplomatic missions of Estonia

US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn Estonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 September 1921, and became a member of the United Nations on 17 September 1991.[206][207] Since restoration of independence Estonia has pursued close relations with the Western countries, and has been member of NATO since 29 March 2004, as well as the European Union since 1 May 2004.[207] In 2007, Estonia joined the Schengen Area, and in 2011 the Eurozone.[207] The European Union Agency for large-scale IT systems is based in Tallinn, which started operations at the end of 2012.[208] Estonia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2017.[209]

Since the early 1990s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries. The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers.[210] Estonia has built close relationship with the Nordic countries, especially Finland and Sweden, and is a member of Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB-8) uniting Nordic and Baltic countries.[207][211] Joint Nordic-Baltic projects include the education programme Nordplus[212] and mobility programmes for business and industry[213] and for public administration.[214] The Nordic Council of Ministers has an office in Tallinn with a subsidiaries in Tartu and Narva.[215][216] The Baltic states are members of Nordic Investment Bank, European Union's Nordic Battle Group, and in 2011 were invited to co-operate with NORDEFCO in selected activities.[217][218][219][220]


Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016 The beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia as "Nordic" was seen in December 1999, when then Estonian foreign minister (and President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs,[221] with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union enlargement for Estonia too.[222] Andres Kasekamp argued in 2005, that relevance of identity discussions in Baltic states decreased with their entrance into EU and NATO together, but predicted, that in the future, attractiveness of Nordic identity in Baltic states will grow and eventually, five Nordic states plus three Baltic states will become a single unit.[222]

Other Estonian international organisation memberships include OECD, OSCE, WTO, IMF, the Council of the Baltic Sea States,[207][223][224] and on 7 June 2019, was elected a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for a term that begins on 1 January 2020.[225]

Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical co-operation.[226]

Military[edit] Main articles: Estonian Defence Forces and Estonian Defence League

Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015 The Estonian Defence Forces consist of land forces, navy, and air force. The current national military service is compulsory for healthy men between ages of 18 and 28, with conscripts serving 8 or 11-month tours of duty, depending on their education and position provided by the Defence Forces.[227] The peacetime size of the Estonian Defence Forces is about 6,000 persons, with half of those being conscripts. The planned wartime size of the Defence Forces is 60,000 personnel, including 21,000 personnel in high readiness reserve.[228] Since 2015 the Estonian defence budget has been over 2% of GDP, fulfilling its NATO defence spending obligation.[229]

The Estonian Defence League is a voluntary national defence organisation under management of Ministry of Defence. It is organized based on military principles, has its own military equipment, and provides various different military training for its members, including in guerilla tactics. The Defence League has 16,000 members, with additional 10,000 volunteers in its affiliated organisations.[230][231]

Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives. As part of Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) the three countries manage the Baltic airspace control center, Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT) has participated in the NATO Response Force, and a joint military educational institution Baltic Defence College is located in Tartu.[232]

Estonian armoured car in desert camouflage Afghanistan An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan Estonia joined NATO in 2004. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence was established in Tallinn in 2008.[233] In response to Russian military operations in Ukraine, since 2017 NATO Enhanced Forward Presence battalion battle group has been based in Tapa Army Base.[234] Also part of NATO Baltic Air Policing deployment has been based in Ämari Air Base since 2014.[235] In European Union Estonia participates in Nordic Battlegroup and Permanent Structured Cooperation.[236][237]

Since 1995 Estonia has participated in numerous international security and peacekeeping missions, including: Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Kosovo, and Mali.[238] The peak strength of Estonian deployment in Afghanistan was 289 soldiers in 2009.[239] 11 Estonian soldiers have been killed in missions of Afghanistan and Iraq.[240]

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Administrative divisions of Estonia, Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, Boroughs of Estonia, and Populated places in Estonia

Administrative divisions of Estonia Estonia is a unitary country with a single-tier local government system. Local affairs are managed autonomously by local governments. Since administrative reform in 2017, there are in total 79 local governments, including 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities. All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a county, which is a state administrative unit.[241] Representative body of local authorities is municipal council, elected at general direct elections for a four-year term. The council appoints local government, headed by a mayor. For additional decentralization the local authorities may form municipal districts with limited authority, currently those have been formed in Tallinn and Hiiumaa.[242]

Separately from administrative units there are also settlement units: village, small borough, borough, and town. Generally, villages have less than 300, small boroughs have between 300 and 1000, boroughs and towns have over 1000 inhabitants.[242]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Estonia map of European Union eurozone Estonia is part of a monetary union—the eurozone (dark blue)—and of the EU single market.

A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019 As a member of the European Union, Estonia is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country was $29,312 in 2016 according to the International Monetary Fund.[6] Because of its rapid growth, Estonia has often been described as a Baltic Tiger beside Lithuania and Latvia. Beginning 1 January 2011, Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state.[243]

According to Eurostat, Estonia had the lowest ratio of government debt to GDP among EU countries at 6.7% at the end of 2010.[244] A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy.

aerial view of high rises at sunset The central business district of Tallinn Estonia produces about 75% of its consumed electricity.[245] In 2011, about 85% of it was generated with locally mined oil shale.[246] Alternative energy sources such as wood, peat, and biomass make up approximately 9% of primary energy production. Renewable wind energy was about 6% of total consumption in 2009.[247] Estonia imports petroleum products from western Europe and Russia. Estonia imports 100% of its natural gas from Russia.[248] Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy.[249] The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities.[citation needed] The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points.[citation needed]

Because of the global economic recession that began in 2007, the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.4% in the 2nd quarter of 2008, over 3% in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and over 9% in the 4th quarter of 2008. The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for 2008 by EEK 6.1 billion and the expenditure by EEK 3.2 billion.[250] In 2010, the economic situation stabilised and started a growth based on strong exports. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Estonian industrial output increased by 23% compared to the year before. The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since.[251]

According to Eurostat data, Estonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 67% of the EU average in 2008.[252] In 2017, the average monthly gross salary in Estonia was €1221.[253]

However, there are vast disparities in GDP between different areas of Estonia; currently, over half of the country's GDP is created in Tallinn.[254] In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average,[255] which makes the per capita GDP of Tallinn as high as 115% of the European Union average, exceeding the average levels of other counties.

The unemployment rate in March 2016 was 6.4%, which is below the EU average,[253] while real GDP growth in 2011 was 8.0%,[256] five times the euro-zone average. In 2012, Estonia remained the only euro member with a budget surplus, and with a national debt of only 6%, it is one of the least indebted countries in Europe.[257]

Economic indicators[edit] The Index of Economic Freedom 2017 Country Rank Score Hong Kong[a] 1 89.8 Singapore 2 88.6 New Zealand 3 83.7 Switzerland 4 81.5 Australia 5 81.0 Estonia 6 79.1 Canada 7 78.5 United Arab Emirates 8 76.9 Ireland 9 76.7 Chile 10 76.5 Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of economic freedom, ranking 6th globally and 2nd in Europe.[258][259] The rule of law remains strongly buttressed and enforced by an independent and efficient judicial system. A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy.[260] As of May 2018, the Ease of Doing Business Index by the World Bank Group places the country 16th in the world.[261] The strong focus on the IT sector has led to much faster, simpler and efficient public services where for example filing a tax return takes less than five minutes and 98% of banking transactions are conducted through the internet.[262][263] Estonia has the 13th lowest business bribery risk in the world, according to TRACE Matrix.[264]

Estonia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that was among the fastest-growing in the EU since its entry in 2004.[265] The country ranks very high in the Human Development Index,[8] and compares well in measures of economic freedom, civil liberties, education,[266] and press freedom.[267] Estonian citizens receive universal health care,[268] free education,[269] and the longest paid maternity leave in the OECD.[270] One of the world's most digitally-advanced societies,[271] in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014, the first state to provide e-residency.[citation needed]

Historic development[edit] In 1928, a stable currency, the kroon, was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The word kroon (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkroːn], "crown") is related to that of the other Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was used until 1940. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.


Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012 Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area.[citation needed] In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. This rate has since been reduced three times, to 24% in January 2005, 23% in January 2006, and most recently to 21% by January 2008.[272] The Government of Estonia finalised the design of Estonian euro coins in late 2004, and adopted the euro as the country's currency on 1 January 2011, later than planned due to continued high inflation.[243][273] A Land Value Tax is levied which is used to fund local municipalities. It is a state level tax, however 100% of the revenue is used to fund Local Councils. The rate is set by the Local Council within the limits of 0.1–2.5%. It is one of the most important sources of funding for municipalities.[274] The Land Value Tax is levied on the value of the land only with improvements and buildings not considered. Very few exemptions are considered on the land value tax and even public institutions are subject to the tax.[274] The tax has contributed to a high rate (~90%)[274] of owner-occupied residences within Estonia, compared to a rate of 67.4% in the United States.[275]

In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the 1998 Russian financial crisis.[citation needed] Estonia joined the WTO in November 1999. With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank, Estonia completed most of its preparations for European Union membership by the end of 2002 and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union.[citation needed] Estonia joined the OECD in 2010.[276]

Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Estonia

Tallinn Airport in 2006 The Port of Tallinn, taking into account both cargo and passenger traffic, is one of the largest port enterprises of the Baltic Sea. In 2018, the enterprise was listed in Tallinn Stock Exchange. It was the first time in nearly 20 years in Estonia when a state-owned company went public in Estonia. It was also the 2nd largest IPO in Nasdaq Tallinn in the number of retail investors participating. The Republic of Estonia remains as the largest shareholder and holds 67% of the company.[277]

Owned by AS Eesti Raudtee, there are many significant railroad connections in Estonia, such as Tallinn–Narva railway, which is 209.6 km (130.2 mi) long main connection to St. Petersburg. The most important highways in Estonia, in other hand, includes Narva Highway (E20), Tartu Highway (E263) and Pärnu Highway (E67).

The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport in Tallinn is the largest airport in Estonia and serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for AirBaltic[278] and LOT Polish Airlines.[279] Total passengers using the airport has increased on average by 14.2% annually since 1998. On 16 November 2012 Tallinn Airport has reached two million passenger landmark for the first time in its history.[280]

Resources[edit]

The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world.[281] In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.[282][283] Although Estonia is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. The country has large oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests that cover 48% of the land.[284] In addition to oil shale and limestone, Estonia also has large reserves of phosphorite, pitchblende, and granite that currently are not mined, or not mined extensively.[285]

Significant quantities of rare-earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe.[286] Because of the rising prices of rare earths, extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2% of world production.[287]

Since 2008, public debate has discussed whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant to secure energy production after closure of old units in the Narva Power Plants, if they are not reconstructed by the year 2016.[288][289]

Industry and environment[edit] See also: Oil shale in Estonia, Narva Power Plants, and Wind power in Estonia Rõuste wind turbines next to wetland Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry.[citation needed] In 2007, the construction industry employed more than 80,000 people, around 12% of the entire country's workforce.[290] Another important industrial sector is the machinery and chemical industry, which is mainly located in Ida-Viru County and around Tallinn.

The oil shale-based mining industry, also concentrated in East Estonia, produces around 90% of the entire country's electricity.[citation needed] Although the amount of pollutants emitted has been falling since the 1980s,[291] the air is still contaminated with sulphur dioxide from the mining industry the Soviet Union rapidly developed in the early 1950s. In some areas, coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex.[292]

Estonia is dependent on other countries for energy. In recent years, many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources.[citation needed] Wind power has been increasing steadily in Estonia and the total current amount of energy produced from wind is nearly 60 MW; another roughly 399 MW worth of projects are currently being developed and more than 2800 MW being proposed in the Lake Peipus area and coastal areas of Hiiumaa.[293][294][295]

Currently[when?], there are plans to renovate some older units of the Narva Power Plants, establish new power stations, and provide higher efficiency in oil shale-based energy production.[296] Estonia liberalised 35% of its electricity market in April 2010; the electricity market as whole was to be liberalised by 2013.[297]

Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania to replace the Ignalina nuclear plant.[298][299] However, due to the slow pace of the project and problems with the nuclear sector (like the Fukushima disaster and bad example of Olkiluoto plant), Eesti Energia shifted its main focus to shale oil production, seen as far more profitable.[300]

The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the Nord Pool Spot network.[301]

Estonia has a strong information technology sector, partly owing to the Tiigrihüpe project undertaken in the mid-1990s, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe in the terms of e-Government of Estonia.[302] The 2014 e-residency program began offering those services to non-residents in Estonia.

Skype was written by Estonia-based developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn, who had also originally developed Kazaa.[303] Other notable tech startups include GrabCAD, Fortumo and TransferWise. It has been claimed that Estonia has the most startups per person in the world.[304]

Trade[edit] Main article: Tallinn Stock Exchange graph of exports in 2010 showing $10,345,000,000 2.8 percent cars, 12 percent lubricating oil, 3.8 percent telephone Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories Estonia has had a market economy since the end of the 1990s and one of the highest per capita income levels in Eastern Europe.[305] Proximity to the Scandinavian and Finnish markets, its location between the East and West, competitive cost structure and a highly skilled labour force have been the major Estonian comparative advantages in the beginning of the 2000s (decade). As the largest city, Tallinn has emerged as a financial centre and the Tallinn Stock Exchange joined recently with the OMX system. Several cryptocurrency trading platforms are officially recognised by the government, such as CoinMetro.[306] The current government has pursued tight fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt.

In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which was pegged to the Euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries. Estonia exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products.[307] Estonia also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[307] At the same time Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment.[307] Estonia imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[307]

Between 2007 and 2013, Estonia received 53.3 billion kroons (3.4 billion euros) from various European Union Structural Funds as direct supports, creating the largest foreign investments into Estonia.[308] Majority of the European Union financial aid will be invested into the following fields: energy economies, entrepreneurship, administrative capability, education, information society, environment protection, regional and local development, research and development activities, healthcare and welfare, transportation and labour market.[309] Main sources of foreign direct investments to Estonia are Sweden and Finland (As of 31 December 2016 48.3%).[310]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Estonia Residents of Estonia by ethnicity (2019)[311] Estonians   68.5% Russians   24.8% Ukrainians   1.8% Belarusians   0.9% Finns   0.6% Latvians   0.2% Others   2.0% Unknown   1.3% The population of Estonia, from 1960 to 2019, with a peak in 1990. Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.[312] Before World War II, ethnic Estonians made up 88% of the population, with national minorities constituting the remaining 12%.[313] The largest minority groups in 1934 were Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, Jews, Poles, Finns and Ingrians.

The share of Baltic Germans in Estonia had fallen from 5.3% (~46,700) in 1881 to 1.3% (16,346) by 1934,[313][314] mainly due to emigration to Germany in the light of general Russification at the end of the 19th century[citation needed] and the independence of Estonia in the 20th century.

Between 1945 and 1989, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population resident within the currently defined boundaries of Estonia dropped to 61%, caused primarily by the Soviet programme promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, as well as by wartime emigration and Joseph Stalin's mass deportations and executions.[315] By 1989, minorities constituted more than one-third of the population, as the number of non-Estonians had grown almost fivefold.

At the end of the 1980s, Estonians perceived their demographic change as a national catastrophe. This was a result of the migration policies essential to the Soviet Nationalisation Programme aiming to russify Estonia – administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the deportation of Estonians to the USSR.[citation needed] In the decade after the reconstitution of independence, large-scale emigration by ethnic Russians and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused[citation needed] the proportion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61% to 69% in 2006.

Modern Estonia is a fairly ethnically heterogeneous country, but this heterogeneity is not a feature of much of the country as the non-Estonian population is concentrated in two of Estonia's counties. Thirteen of Estonia's 15 counties are over 80% ethnic Estonian, the most homogeneous being Hiiumaa, where Estonians account for 98.4% of the population. In the counties of Harju (including the capital city, Tallinn) and Ida-Viru, however, ethnic Estonians make up 60% and 20% of the population, respectively. Russians make up 25.6% of the total population, but they account for 36% of the population in Harju County and 70% of the population in Ida-Viru County.

The Estonian Cultural Autonomy law that was passed in 1925 was unique in Europe at that time.[316] Cultural autonomies could be granted to minorities numbering more than 3,000 people with longstanding ties to the Republic of Estonia. Before the Soviet occupation, the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993. Historically, large parts of Estonia's northwestern coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased (Coastal Swedes).

In recent years the number of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, owing to the property reforms in the beginning of the 1990s. In 2004, the Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy. The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007.

Society[edit] See also: Human rights in Estonia, Nordic identity in Estonia, and Estonian alien's passport

Estonian folk dancers Among Post-Soviet states, Estonia is one of the strongest Westernized countries.[317] Estonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income. The Gini coefficient has held steadily higher than the European Union average (31 in 2009),[318] although it has clearly dropped. The registered unemployment rate in January 2021 was 6.9%.[319]

Modern Estonia is a multinational country in which 109 languages are spoken, according to a 2000 census. 67.3% of Estonian citizens speak Estonian as their native language, 29.7% Russian, and 3% speak other languages.[320] As of 2 July 2010, 84.1% of Estonian residents are Estonian citizens, 8.6% are citizens of other countries and 7.3% are "citizens with undetermined citizenship".[321] Since 1992, roughly 140,000 people have acquired Estonian citizenship by passing naturalisation exams.[322] Estonia has also accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in 2015.[323]

Ethnic distribution in Estonia is very homogeneous at a county level; in most counties, over 90% of residents are ethnic Estonians. In contrast, in large urban centres like Tallinn, Estonians account for 60% of the population and the remainder is mostly composed of Russian and other Slavic inhabitants, who arrived in Estonia during the Soviet period.[citation needed]


A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island The 2008 United Nations Human Rights Council report called "extremely credible" the description of the citizenship policy of Estonia as "discriminatory".[324] According to surveys, only 5% of the Russian community have considered returning to Russia in the near future. Estonian Russians have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia. When compared with results from a 2000 survey, Russians had a more positive attitude toward the future.[325]

Estonia was the first post-Soviet republic to legalise civil unions for same-sex couples, with a law approved in October 2014.[326] Political disagreements delayed adoption of the necessary implementing legislation, and same-sex couples were not able to sign cohabitation agreements until January 1, 2016.

Urbanization[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities and towns in Estonia. Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia, and lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. There are 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total, there are 47 linna, with "linn" in English meaning both "cities" and "towns". More than 70% of the population lives in towns.

‹ The template below (Largest cities of Estonia) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Largest cities or towns in Estonia [327] Rank Name County Pop. Rank Name County Pop. Tallinn Tallinn Tartu Tartu 1 Tallinn Harju 434,562 11 Sillamäe Ida-Viru 12,719 Narva Narva Pärnu Pärnu 2 Tartu Tartu 96,974 12 Valga Valga 12,182 3 Narva Ida-Viru 55,249 13 Võru Võru 11,859 4 Pärnu Pärnu 50,643 14 Paide Järva 10,590 5 Kohtla-Järve Ida-Viru 33,743 15 Jõhvi Ida-Viru 10,541 6 Viljandi Viljandi 17,407 16 Keila Harju 9,910 7 Maardu Harju 15,332 17 Elva Tartu 5,664 8 Rakvere Lääne-Viru 15,189 18 Saue Harju 5,629 9 Kuressaare Saare 13,097 19 Põlva Põlva 5,324 10 Haapsalu Lääne 13,077 20 Tapa Lääne-Viru 5,316 Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Estonia Religion 2000 Census[328] 2011 Census[329] Number % Number % Orthodox Christians 143,554 12.80 176,773 16.15 Lutheran Christians 152,237 13.57 108,513 9.91 Baptists 6,009 0.54 4,507 0.41 Roman Catholics 5,745 0.51 4,501 0.41 Jehovah's Witnesses 3,823 0.34 3,938 0.36 Old Believers 2,515 0.22 2,605 0.24 Christian Free Congregations 223 0.02 2,189 0.20 Earth Believers 1,058 0.09 1,925 0.18 Taara Believers 1,047 0.10 Pentecostals 2,648 0.24 1,855 0.17 Muslims 1,387 0.12 1,508 0.14 Adventists 1,561 0.14 1,194 0.11 Buddhists 622 0.06 1,145 0.10 Methodists 1,455 0.13 1,098 0.10 Other religion 4,995 0.45 8,074 0.74 No religion 450,458 40.16 592,588 54.14 Undeclared 343,292 30.61 181,104 16.55 Total1 1,121,582 100.00 1,094,564 100.00 1Population, persons aged 15 and older.

Estonia has a rich and diverse religious history, but in recent years it has become increasingly secular, with either a plurality or a majority of the population declaring themselves nonreligious in recent censuses, followed by those who identify as religiously "undeclared". The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations, principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. Other polls suggest the country is broadly split between Christians and the non-religious / religiously undeclared.

In ancient Estonia, prior to Christianization and according to Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Tharapita was the predominant deity for the Oeselians.[330]

Estonia was Christianised by the Catholic Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. The Protestant Reformation led to the establishment of the Lutheran church in 1686. Before the Second World War, Estonia was approximately 80% Protestant, overwhelmingly Lutheran,[331][332][333] followed by Calvinism and other Protestant branches. Many Estonians profess not to be particularly religious, because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule.[334] There has historically been a small but noticeable minority of Russian Old-believers near the Lake Peipus area in Tartu County.


Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia Today, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.[335] According to the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc, Estonia is one of the least religious countries in the world, with 75.7% of the population claiming to be irreligious. The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 found that only 16% of Estonians profess a belief in a god, the lowest belief of all countries studied.[336] According to the Lutheran World Federation, the historic Lutheran denomination has a large presence with 180,000 registered members.[337]

New polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Christianity is the largest religion in Estonia accounting for 45% of Estonians.[338] Eastern Orthodox are the largest Christian group in Estonia, accounting for 17% of Estonia citizens,[338] while Protestants make up 6%, and Other Christian make up 22%. Non believer/Agnostic account 22%, Atheist accounts for 15%, and undeclared accounts for 15%.[338]

The most recent Pew Research Center, found that in 2015, 51% of the population of Estonia declared itself Christian, 45% religiously unaffiliated—a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "nothing in particular", while 2% belonged to other faiths.[339] The Christians divided between 25% Eastern Orthodox, 20% Lutherans, 5% other Christians and 1% Roman Catholic.[340] While the religiously unaffiliated divided between 9% as atheists, 1% as agnostics and 35% as Nothing in Particular.[341]

Traditionally, the largest religious denomination in the country was Lutheranism, which was adhered to by 160,000 Estonians (or 13% of the population) according from 2000 census, principally ethnic Estonians. Other organisations, such as the World Council of Churches, report that there are as many as 265,700 Estonian Lutherans.[342] Additionally, there are between 8,000 and 9,000 members abroad. However, the 2011 census indicated that Eastern Orthodoxy had surpassed Lutheranism, accounting for 16.5% of the population (176,773 people).

Eastern Orthodoxy is practised chiefly by the Russian minority. The Estonian Orthodox Church, affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church, is the primary Orthodox denomination. The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, under the Greek-Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate, claims another 20,000 members.[citation needed]

Roman Catholics are a small minority in Estonia. They are organised under the Latin Apostolic Administration of Estonia.

According to the census of 2000 (data in table to the right), there were about 1,000 adherents of the Taara faith[343][344][345] or Maausk in Estonia (see Maavalla Koda). The Jewish community has an estimated population of about 1,900 (see History of the Jews in Estonia), and the Muslim community numbers just over 1,400. Around 68,000 people consider themselves atheists.[346]

Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Estonia

Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe The official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related to Finnish and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin. Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of their origin, Estonian and Finnish are not related to the languages of their nearest geographical neighbouring states, Swedish, Latvian, and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages.

Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German. This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon (Middle Low German) during the period of German rule, and High German (including standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.

South Estonian languages are spoken by 100,000 people and include the dialects of Võro and Seto. The languages are spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, are genealogically distinct from northern Estonian: but are traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language(s).[347]

Russian is the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentrations of Russian speakers and there are towns where Estonian speakers are in the minority (especially in the northeast, e.g. Narva). Russian is spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from 1944 to 1990 and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era. In the period between 1990 and 1995, the Russian language was granted an official special status according to Estonian language laws.[348] In 1995 it lost its official status. In 1998, most first- and second-generation industrial immigrants from the former Soviet Union (mainly the Russian SFSR) did not speak Estonian.[349] However, by 2010, 64.1% of non-ethnic Estonians spoke Estonian.[350] The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Virumaa.

From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands (e.g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu; in Swedish, known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the Baltic sea, communities which today have almost disappeared. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament, and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates.

From 1918 to 1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain. Apart from many other areas the influence of Swedish is especially distinct in the Noarootsi Parish of Lääne County where there are many villages with bilingual Estonian and/or Swedish names and street signs.[351][352]

The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French. Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish, and Swedish.[353]

Education and science[edit] gray stucco building three-story building with grey slate hip roof, central portico and pediment The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.[354] Main article: Education in Estonia See also: List of universities in Estonia, Space science in Estonia, and Tiigrihüpe The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded.[355] The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu, established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language.

Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The education system is based on four levels: pre-school, basic, secondary, and higher education.[356] A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions. There are currently 589 schools in Estonia.[357]

According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, the performance levels of gymnasium-age pupils in Estonia is among the highest in the world: in 2010, the country was ranked 13th for the quality of its education system, well above the OECD average.[358] Additionally, around 89% of Estonian adults aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, one of the highest rates in the industrialised world.[359]

Building of Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. In August 2008 a Georgian flag was hoisted besides Estonian to support Georgia in the South Ossetia war. Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture.[360] The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920. Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties (basic medical studies, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer, and a classroom teacher programme) the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit.[361] Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. In addition to organising the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets.[362] Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts; the largest private university is Estonian Business School.

ESTCube-1 micro satellite orbiting globe and beaming light to Estonia ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite. The Estonian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of science. The strongest public non-profit research institute that carries out fundamental and applied research is the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (NICPB; Estonian KBFI). The first computer centres were established in the late 1950s in Tartu and Tallinn. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union during the 1980s.[363][364] As of 2015, Estonia spends around 1.5% of its GDP on Research and Development, compared to an EU average of around 2.0%.[365] Estonia was ranked 25th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 24th in 2019.[366][367][368][369]

Some of the best-known scientists related to Estonia include astronomers Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Ernst Öpik and Jaan Einasto, biologist Karl Ernst von Baer, Jakob von Uexküll, chemists Wilhelm Ostwald and Carl Schmidt, economist Ragnar Nurkse, mathematician Edgar Krahn, medical researchers Ludvig Puusepp and Nikolay Pirogov, physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, political scientist Rein Taagepera, psychologist Endel Tulving and Risto Näätänen, semiotician Juri Lotman.

According to New Scientist, Estonia will be the first nation to provide personal genetic information service sponsored by the state. They aim to minimise and prevent future ailments for those whose genes make them extra prone to conditions like adult-onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The government plans to provide lifestyle advice based on the DNA for 100,000 of its 1.3 million citizens.[370]

Culture[edit] Main articles: Culture of Estonia and List of Estonians

The Estonian National Museum in Tartu. The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Germany, Sweden and Russia, for this reason it aspires more to be considered a Nordic state.[371][372]

Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The Protestant work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution. Like the mainstream culture in the Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons (see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency (see: summer cottage).

The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects.[373]

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Estonia See also: Estonian national awakening, Estonian Song Festival, and Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest

The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The earliest mention of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum (ca. 1179).[374] Saxo speaks of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle. The older folk songs are also referred to as regilaulud, songs in the traditional regivärss poetic metre shared by all Baltic Finns. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them.[citation needed]

Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, and are now becoming more commonly played once more. Other instruments, including the fiddle, zither, concertina, and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is again becoming more popular in Estonia. A Native Music Preserving Centre was opened in 2008 in Viljandi.[375]

Arvo Pärt bearded balding man facing left Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010-2018. The tradition of Estonian Song Festivals (Laulupidu) started at the height of the Estonian national awakening in 1869. Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world. In 2004, about 100,000 people participated in the Song Festival. Since 1928, the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) have hosted the event every five years in July. The last festival took place in July 2019. In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the latest taking place in 2017.[376]

Professional Estonian musicians and composers such as Aleksander Eduard Thomson, Rudolf Tobias, Miina Härma, Mart Saar, Artur Kapp, Juhan Aavik, Aleksander Kunileid, Artur Lemba and Heino Eller emerged in the late 19th century. Currently, the most well-known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin, and Veljo Tormis.[citation needed] In 2014, Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer for the fourth year in a row.[377]

In the 1950s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer.[378]

In popular music, Estonian artist Kerli Kõiv has become popular in Europe, also gaining in popularity in North America. She provided music for the 2010 Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville in the United States of America.[citation needed]

Estonia won the Eurovision Song Contest in 2001 with the song "Everybody" performed by Tanel Padar and Dave Benton. In 2002, Estonia hosted the event. Maarja-Liis Ilus competed for Estonia in 1996 and 1997, while Eda-Ines Etti, Koit Toome and Evelin Samuel partly owe their popularity to the song contest. Lenna Kuurmaa gained recognition in Europe performing with her band Vanilla Ninja. "Rändajad" by Urban Symphony was the first song in Estonian to chart in the UK, Belgium and Switzerland.[citation needed]

Literature[edit] Main article: Literature of Estonia See also: Estophile

Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer. Estonian literature refers to literature written in the Estonian language (ca. 1 million speakers).[379] The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia, resulted in few early literary works being written in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and sentence fragments. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names.[380] Many folk tales are told to this day and some have been written down and translated to make them accessible to an international readership.[381]

The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity. Apart from a few, albeit remarkable, exceptions, this archaic form has not been widely employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in the field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.

Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of early Estonian literature and is still widely read today, particularly his lyrical school novel Kevade (Spring).[382] Anton Hansen Tammsaare's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy, Truth and Justice, captured the evolution of Estonian society from a peasant community to an independent nation.[383][384] In modern times, Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski are Estonia's best-known and most-translated writers.[385] Among the most popular writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are Tõnu Õnnepalu and Andrus Kivirähk, who uses elements of Estonian folklore and mythology, deforming them into the absurd and grotesque.[386]

Media[edit] See also: List of Estonian films and List of Estonian war films The cinema of Estonia started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V's visit to Tallinn.[387] The first public TV broadcast in Estonia was in July 1955. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the 1990s. The first licences for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990.

The most internationally known Estonian films include Those Old Love Letters, The Heart of the Bear, Names in Marble, The Singing Revolution, Autumn Ball, 1944, and The Fencer. Internationally known Estonian film actors include Lembit Ulfsak, Jaan Tätte, and Elmo Nüganen, who also known as a film director. Estonia and its capital Tallinn have also served as a filming location for international productions, such as a 2020 British-American film Tenet, directed by Christopher Nolan.[388][389]

Today the media is a vibrant and competitive sector. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, and Estonia has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the 2012 Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.[390]

Estonia has two news agencies. The Baltic News Service (BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling who is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created on 30 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio and Eesti Televisioon under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.[391][392]

Architecture[edit]

This sction needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Estonia" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Architecture of Estonia

A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. Worth mentioning is especially the architectural ensemble that makes out the medieval old town of Tallinn, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of wooden manor houses from earlier centuries.

Holidays[edit] Main article: Public holidays in Estonia The Estonian National Day is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February, the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. As of 2013, there are 12 public holidays (which come with a day off) and 12 national holidays celebrated annually.[393][394]

showPublic holidays in Estonia Date Cuisine[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Estonian cuisine See also: Kama (food), Kalev (confectioner), Kohuke, and Verivorst

Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.[395] Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food. Today, it includes many typical international foods. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products.[396] Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer.

Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table. Gathering and preserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and preserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside.

Sports[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Sport in Estonia large crowd of skiers participating in the marathon Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006 Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture. After declaring independence from Russia in 1918, Estonia first competed as a nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics, although the National Olympic Committee was established in 1923. Estonian athletes took part of the Olympic Games until the country was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. The 1980 Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling, and cross-country skiing. Estonia has had very good success at the Olympic games given the country's small population. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the medal table at the 1936 Summer Olympics, and 12th at the 2006 Winter Olympics.

The list of notable Estonian athletes include wrestlers Kristjan Palusalu, Johannes Kotkas, Voldemar Väli, and Georg Lurich, skiers Andrus Veerpalu and Kristina Šmigun-Vähi, weightlifters Alfred Neuland and Jaan Talts, fencer Nikolai Novosjolov, decathlete Erki Nool, tennis players Kaia Kanepi and Anett Kontaveit, cyclists Jaan Kirsipuu and Erika Salumäe and discus throwers Gerd Kanter and Aleksander Tammert.

Paul Keres, Estonian and Soviet chess grandmaster, was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s. He narrowly missed a chance at a World Chess Championship match on five occasions.

Wrestler Heiki Nabi at 2012 Summer Olympics Wrestler Heiki Nabi at 2012 Summer Olympics. Wrestling is Estonia's most successful Olympic sport. Kiiking, a relatively new sport, was invented in 1993 by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees.

Basketball is also a notable sport in Estonia. The domestic top-tier basketball championship is called the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. BC Kalev/Cramo are the most recent champions, having won the league in the 2016–17 season. University of Tartu team has won the league a record 26 times. Estonian clubs also participate in European and regional competitions. Estonia national basketball team previously participated in 1936 Summer Olympics, appeared in EuroBasket four times. Estonian national team also competed at the EuroBasket 2015.

Kelly Sildaru, an Estonian freestyle skier, won the gold medal in the slopestyle event in the 2016 Winter X Games. At age 13, she became the youngest gold medalist to date at a Winter X Games event, and the first person to win a Winter X Games medal for Estonia. She has also won the women's slopestyle at 2015 and 2016 Winter Dew Tour.

In modern-era motorsports, World Rally Championship has seen two very successful Estonian drivers, with Ott Tänak winning the drivers' world title in the 2019 World Rally Championship and Markko Märtin achieving 5 rally victories and finishing 3rd overall in the 2004 World Rally Championship. In circuit racing, Marko Asmer was the first Estonian driver to test a Formula One car in 2003 with Williams Grand Prix Engineering, in other series Sten Pentus, Jüri Vips, and Kevin Korjus (active driver) have enjoyed success on a global scale.

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Retrieved 20 October 2018. ^ Personal Income Tax Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Estonia ^ Angioni, Giovanni (31 March 2009). "Estonia Gets Closer to the Euro". Estonian Free Press. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Land Taxation Reform in Estonia" (PDF). Aysps.gsu.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "Homeownership rate graph". Housing Vacancies and Homeownership. US Census. Retrieved 2 June 2015. ^ "Estonia's accession to the OECD". OECD. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2016. ^ "Port of Tallinn surges nearly 20% minutes after trading begins" ERR, 13 June 2018. ^ "Latvian airBaltic becomes number one airline in Estonia". Estonian World. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. ^ Liiva, Siiri (18 November 2016). "Nordica lennukipark täieneb ajutiselt ühe LOTi lennukiga". Postimees Majandus (in Estonian). Postimees. Retrieved 19 November 2016. ^ "FOTOD: Vaata, kuidas saabus Tallinna lennujaama kahe miljones reisija" (in Estonian). delfi.ee. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012. ^ IEA (2013), p. 20. ^ "Actions of the state in directing the use of oil shale. Does the state guarantee that oil shale reserves are used sustainably? Report of the National Audit Office to the Riigikogu". National Audit Office of Estonia. 19 November 2014. pp. 7–14, 29. Archived from the original on 13 December 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2015. ^ IEA (2013), p. 7. ^ "Forest resources based on national forest inventory". Statistics Estonia. 2012. ^ "Uranium production at Sillamäe". Ut.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Rofer, Cheryl K.; Kaasik, Tõnis (2000). Turning a Problem into a Resource: Remediation and Waste Management at the Sillamäe Site, Estonia. Volume 28 of NATO science series: Disarmament technologies. Springer. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7923-6187-9. ^ Reigas, Anneli (1 December 2010). "Estonia's rare earth break China's market grip". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 1 December 2010. ^ Tulevikuraport: Soome-Eesti tuumajaam võiks olla Eestis (Future Report: Finnish and Estonian joint nuclear power station could be located in Estonia), Postimees. 25 June 2008 (in Estonian). ^ "A nuclear power plant for Estonia?". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 23 June 2018. ^ "Invest in Estonia: Overview of the Construction industry in Estonia". Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ M. Auer (2004). Estonian Environmental Reforms: A Small Nation's Outsized Accomplishments. In: Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe and Russia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp 117–144. ^ "Environment – current issues in Estonia. CIA Factbook". Umsl.edu. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ "Estonian Wind Power Association". Tuuleenergia.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Peipsile võib kerkida mitusada tuulikut, Postimees. 21 October 2007 (in Estonian) Archived 22 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine ^ Henrik Ilves Tuule püüdmine on saanud Eesti kullapalavikuks, Eesti Päevaleht. 13 June 2008 (in Estonian) ^ "State Environment in Estonia". Enrin.grida.no. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ "Developing Estonian energy policy hand in hand with EU energy packages" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2010. ^ "Visaginas recognised with nuclear site name". World Nuclear News. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008. ^ "Nuclear Power Plant Project in Lithuania is Feasible. Press release". Lietuvos Energija. 25 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2007. ^ "Liive: Eesti Energia ditched nuclear plant plans for shale oil". ERR. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015. ^ "Nord Pool". Nordpoolspot.com. Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, August 2007 ^ Thomann, Andreas (6 September 2006). "Skype – A Baltic Success Story". credit-suisse.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2008. ^ "Not only Skype". The Economist. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2015. ^ "GNI per capita in PPP dollars for Baltic states". Google WorldBank. Retrieved 27 February 2015. ^ "CoinMetro License". Retrieved 8 August 2018. ^ Jump up to: a b c d "CIA World Factbook: Estonia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 December 2010. ^ "European Union Structural Funds in Estonia". Struktuurifondid.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Vosman, Livia (13 November 2010). "Europostitus on jõudnud 350 000 kodusse". Rahandusministeerium (in Estonian). ^ "Estonian Economy Overview | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Vm.ee. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "Rahvaarv rahvuse järgi, 1. jaanuar, aasta". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 10 October 2019. ^ "Rahvaarv, 1. jaanuar, aasta". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 10 October 2019. ^ Jump up to: a b "Ethnic minorities in Estonia: past and present". Einst.ee. 26 December 1998. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ "Baltic Germans in Estonia". Estonian Institute. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. ^ "Soviet repression and deportations in the Baltic states". Gulag.online. Retrieved 29 October 2021. ^ Smith, David James (2005). The Baltic States and Their Region: New Europe Or Old?. Rodopi. p. 211. ISBN 978-90-420-1666-8. ^ "Report: Estonia is most westernized of former Soviet Union members". The Baltic Times. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2021. ^ CIA World Factbook. . Retrieved 7 November 2011 ^ "Töötuse määr" [Unemployment rate] (in Estonian). Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 20 September 2021. ^ "Population by the place of residence and mother tongue, statistical database: Population Census 2000". Statistics Estonia (government agency at the area of administration of the Ministry of Finance). July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2009. ^ "Citizenship". Estonia.eu. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010. ^ Eesti andis mullu kodakondsuse 2124 inimesele, Postimees. 9 January 2009 ^ "Refugees frustrated and trapped in chilly Baltic states". BBC News. 4 July 2017. ^ Naturalisation in Estonia Statement by the Legal Information Centre for Human Rights (Tallinn, Estonia) ([...]the Special Rapporteur considers extremely credible the views of the representatives of the Russian-speaking minorities who expressed that the citizenship policy is discriminatory[...]) ^ Eesti ühiskond Society Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (2006, PDF in Estonian/English). Retrieved 23 December 2011. ^ Kangsepp, Liis (9 October 2014). "Estonia Passes Law Recognizing Gay Partnerships". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 January 2014. ^ RAHVASTIK SOO, VANUSE JA HALDUSÜKSUSE VÕI ASUSTUSÜKSUSE LIIGI JÄRGI, 1. JAANUAR ^ "PC231: POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION AND ETHNIC NATIONALITY". Statistics Estonia. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 9 January 2014. ^ "PC0454: AT LEAST 15-YEAR-OLD PERSONS BY RELIGION, SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 31 DECEMBER 2011". Statistics Estonia. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2014. ^ "Taarapita – the Great God of the Oeselians. Article by Urmas Sutrop" (PDF). ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 June 2015). Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition. Springer. p. 131. ISBN 9781493922796. Estonia is considered Protestant when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia as a Protestant ex-Communist society. ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 September 2011). "Is Estonia really the least religious country in the world?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014. For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church [...] ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940. ^ Edovald, Triin; Felton, Michelle; Haywood, John; Juskaitis, Rimvydas; Michael Thomas Kerrigan; Lund-Lack, Simon; Middleton, Nicholas; Miskovsky, Josef; Piatrowicz, Ihar; Pickering, Lisa; Praulins, Dace; Swift, John; Uselis, Vytautas; Zajedova, Ilivi (2010). World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1066. ISBN 9780761478966. It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia is the European Union (EU) country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief. This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union annexed Estonia in 1940, church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from 1941 through 1944, and in World War II (1939–1945), and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia under Soviet rule 1944 until 1989, when some measure of tolerance was introduced. ^ "Estonia – Religion". Country Studies. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Constitution of Estonia#Chapter 2: Fundamental Rights, Liberties, and Duties Article 40.–42. ^ "Social Values" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2011. ^ "Churches in Estonia". lutheranworld.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold. ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). 10 May 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017. ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe | Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe: 1. Religious affiliation; Pew Research Center, 10 May 2017 ^ "Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church". oikoumene.org. Retrieved 22 September 2015. ^ "Maavald". Maavald.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Kaasik, Ahto. "Old Estonian Religions". Einst.ee. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Barry, Ellen (9 November 2008). "Some Estonians return to pre-Christian animist traditions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010. ^ "Statistical database: Population Census 2000 – Religious affiliation". Statistics Estonia. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Laakso, Johanna; Sarhimaa, Anneli; Spiliopoulou Åkermark, Sia; Toivanen, Reeta (3 March 2016). Towards Openly Multilingual Policies and Practices: Assessing Minority Language Maintenance Across Europe (1 ed.). Bristol; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. ISBN 9781783094950. Retrieved 23 December 2016. ^ "Eesti NSV Keeleseadus". Riigi Teataja. 7 January 1990. Retrieved 20 August 2021. ^ "Kirch, Aksel. "Russians in contemporary Estonia – different strategies of the integration in to the nation-state."". Ies.ee. 10 February 1998. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Table ML133, Eesti Statistika. Retrieved 30 April 2011 ^ "Names of populated places changed with the reform of 1997". Institute of the Estonian Language. 29 September 1998. Retrieved 12 August 2012. ^ "Information about the bilingual Estonian/Swedish parish of Noarootsi". Noavv.ee. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ "Estonian Foreign Languages Strategy 2009 – 2015". Ministry of Education and Research. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2014. ^ "University of Tartu". www.topuniversities.com. ^ "Ajaloost: Koolihariduse algusest" (in Estonian). University of Tartu. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2013. ^ "Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium". Hm.ee. Retrieved 23 December 2010. ^ "Koolide, huvikoolide, koolieelsete lasteasutuste kontaktandmed". Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009.. Estonian Education Infosystem, (in Estonian) ^ "Eelnõu algtekst (30.05.2001)". Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ "OECD Better Life Index". Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi maja Tartus — 100 aastat Estonian World Review, 16 October 2002 ^ "National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms: Estonia". Eurydice. February 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2009. ^ "Implementation of Bologna Declaration in Estonia". Bologna-berlin2003.de. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ A. Kalja; J. Pruuden; B. Tamm; E. Tyugu (1989). "Two Families of Knowledge Based CAD Environments". In Kochan, Detlef (ed.). Software for manufacturing: proceedings of the 7th International IFIP/IFAC Conference on Software for Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 14–17 June 1988. North-Holland. pp. 125–134. ISBN 978-0-444-87342-2. ^ H. Jaakkola; A. Kalja (1997). "Estonian Information Technology Policy in Government, Industry and Research". Technology Management: Strategies and Applications. 3 (3): 299–307. ^ "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2019. ^ "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021. ^ "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2021. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2021. ^ "Estonia to give genetic testing and advice to 100,000 residents". New Scientist. Retrieved 3 April 2018. ^ Estonia as a Nordic Country – Välisministeerium ^ Nordic ideals of Estonia and Finland: a longing for a strong leader sets Finland and Estonia apart from Scandinavia – ICDS ^ Eesti 245 muuseumis säilitatakse 10 miljonit museaali. Postimees, 30 October 2011. (in Estonian) ^ Sir George Grove; Sadie, Stanley (June 1980). The New Grove dictionary of music and musicians. Macmillan Publishers. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-333-23111-1. ^ Margus Haav Pärimusmuusika ait lööb uksed valla (Estonian Native Music Preserving Centre is opened) Archived 12 September 2012 at archive.today. Postimees. 27 March 2008 (in Estonian) ^ The 12th Estonian youth song and dance celebration Archived 6 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Estonian Song and Dance Celebration Foundation ^ "2014 Classical music statistics: Lis(z)tmania". Bachtrack.com. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2016. ^ "Ots, Georg". Museum Collection. 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. ^ "Estonian literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ Kurman, George (1968). The development of written Estonian. Indiana University. ^ Tiidu the Piper. Basel: Collegium Basilea. 2014. ISBN 9781500941437. ^ Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature Estonica.org ^ Literature and an independent Estonia Estonica.org ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Anton Tammsaare". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. ^ Jaan Kross at google.books ^ Andrus Kivirähk. The Old Barny (novel) Archived 4 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Estonian Literature Centre ^ "Cinema of Estonia". Einst.ee. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010. ^ Whyte, Andrew (7 June 2019). "Tartu keen on Nolan movie filming should Tallinn fall through". ERR. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2020. ^ Vahtla, Aili (11 June 2019). "Gallery: Christopher Nolan, John David Washington arrive in Tallinn". ERR. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2020. ^ "Press Freedom Index 2011–2012 – Reporters Without Borders". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2015. ^ Johnstone, Sarah (2007). Europe on a Shoestring. Lonely Planet. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-74104-591-8. ^ Maier, Michaela (2006). Campaigning in Europe. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 398. ISBN 978-3-8258-9322-4. ^ "Pühade ja tähtpäevade seadus" (in Estonian). Riigi Teataja. Retrieved 19 December 2010. In effect since 26 February 2010 ^ "Estonian Holidays in 2010". Estonian Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2010. ^ "Mulgipuder | Traditional Porridge From Estonia | TasteAtlas". www.tasteatlas.com. ^ "Estonian Food Inforserver". Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2007. (in Estonian) Bibliography[edit] Jaak Kangilaski et al. (2005) Valge raamat (1940–1991), Justiitsministeerium, ISBN 9985-70-194-1. IEA (2013). Estonia 2013. Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries / Ukraine. Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries. doi:10.1787/9789264190801-en. ISBN 978-92-6419079-5. ISSN 2307-0897. Further reading[edit] Giuseppe D'Amato Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East. Book in Italian. Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. ISBN 88-7980-355-7 Hiden, John; Salmon, Patrick (1991). The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-08246-3. Laar, Mart (1992). War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944–1956. trans. Tiina Ets. Washington, D.C.: Compass Press. ISBN 0-929590-08-2. Lieven, Anatol (1993). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05552-8. Meyendorff, Alexander Feliksovich (1922). "Esthonia" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. Naylor, Aliide (2020). The Shadow in the East: Vladimir Putin and the New Baltic Front. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781788312523. Raun, Toivo U. (1987). Estonia and the Estonians. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-8511-5. Smith, David J. (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26728-5. Smith, Graham, ed. (1994). The Baltic States: The National Self-determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12060-5. Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, ed. (2004). Estonia, identity and independence. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0890-3. Taagepera, Rein (1993). Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1199-3. Taylor, Neil (2004). Estonia (4th ed.). Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt. ISBN 1-84162-095-5. Williams, Nicola; Herrmann, Debra; Kemp, Cathryn (2003). Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (3rd ed.). London: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-132-1. External links[edit] Estonia at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Estonia Government[edit] The President of Estonia The Parliament of Estonia Estonian Government Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Statistical Office of Estonia Chief of State and Cabinet Members Travel[edit] Official gateway to Estonia E-Estonia Portal VisitEstonia Portal

Estonia travel guide from Wikivoyage

Maps[edit] google.com map of Estonia

Geographic data related to Estonia at OpenStreetMap

General information[edit] Encyclopedia Estonica Estonian Institute Estonia. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. BBC News – Estonia country profile Estonia at UCB Libraries GovPubs Estonia at Curlie

Wikimedia Atlas of Estonia

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Languages Afrikaans Deutsch Eesti Esperanto Français ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut Italiano Latina ייִדיש 266 more Edit links This page was last edited on 29 November 2021, at 23:56 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Biggest Wiki's Longest Page by Misc544 EDIT So, if you have read my previous Longest Page (a.k.a. Longest Text Ever), you might wonder why I am making a new one here. If you want to know the date I made this, it is May 23, 2021 (I think?). So currently I am talking about everything that is happening now. Also I am writing this on my phone, but later I will write on my tablet. So there is this man explaining in Chinese. Sound system, the heck they made their own? Remember the WhileTrue one in Neocities? Well, that was the last Longest Text Ever made (being made from March-October 2019), before I discovered the original Longest Text Ever (that is like 2004), and decided to make my own. Also in 2019 another Longest Text Ever was made, but it was made by the WhileTrue LTE's creator's sister, the one with the "Ice Ice Baby". Well, one thing that came up in my brain today was cultural resets. And now they are Haomao crazy. And a good cat (Haomao in English) is the Goodcat car. What a funny idea. "215/50", it read. Well, it equals 4.3 (215/50, if you forgot, just in case, but it is very unlikely to forget the 215/50 (I am just estimating)). Park by 20,000 dollars to pay. Hahahaha...just kidding, they did that. Haomao crazy again...is this video about a cat sitting in a car? No. And again, NO. And it is cool that it is high tech. And it is an Oran Berry. No, just kidding again, and another very funny comedy that will make you laugh. And it is 7 pm. So maybe a bye maybe. Cool, but I have 14% left. So in case I don't edit until tomorrow at 3 to 9 pm, I will say a goodbye!!!!!!!!! Hello, I am back on May 23, 2021. I wanted to tell you something: my boss is sick, so we don’t do work tomorrow! Though on Tuesday we will get another boss, and until my boss is cured of illness by medicine, he will be our boss. Well, he likes political stuff, like presidential elections and speeches. When he started to like it was in about October to November 2009, when he saw a political news report on television. He was 16 at the time. Anyways, I will be not active tomorrow. Notably I am a very huge fan of Pokémon anime (only Pokémon anime), but I also have a very huge interest in Pokémon games. You do whatever you want, like going to the Daycare to breed and receive an Egg, or releasing a Pokémon because you don’t like that Pokémon. Hi, I’m back! It is May 24, 2021 at 3:43 pm. Okay, so what? Hi hi Rai! I kept misspelling “hi”, well, “him”. Waialeale. What does that mean? Raccoon!!!! Brain freeze!!!! Well it feels like it. There. Doo-doo-doo, here comes the sun, here comes the sun. Guitar, and it is misspelled. Thick hippo!!!! No, I am just kidding. (laughs in the background) People: We hope you excel! The guy's video is an excellent exception of the essence of the EXCEL! (black out) It is dark...a black out (confetti lights up) YEAH! Go KO for OHKO!!!!! Mew vs. Milotic, that is amazingly good. Chibi cheese it. Raccoon (PANICKING). January 28, 1986. Nothing to worry about...nothing. The end. But a disaster. The end again. The pilot is big! It is 8 seats but the tires are so tiny! Random stuff, you can read, even including Misc544: KappaClappa PokClappa PikClappa GroClappa MewClappa MukClappa SadThump CryThump BibleIsaac ThumpIsaac AngryIsaac ShockWut PokWut WutClappa KappaHD2 MeFirst PokMe ShoutWut ShockFace PokShock PokShock2 Mewtwo2D Mew2D RaiCoin PikaCoin PokClappa2 PokKappa PokKappa2 RaccWut RaccCute LinooneAttack LinooneWut LinooneCute RoundBall PokBall PokCatch FBBall FBTears FBPoke FBGet FBHurt FBSummer FBSCatch FBWut FBSWut WutAttack WutShocker imGlitchGold SKappa BKappa SClappa BClappa PartGClappa AngryWesbtw VMAXWesbtw GlowBayleef NotBot GlowPichu BetWrong WutWesbtw WesbtwKappa KomodoChamp OutPChamp PogBG PoggersBG WesbtwNoBG imGlitchInv DrinkPurpleBG GlowPichuBG NotBotBG GlowBayleefBG KappaClappaBG PraiseItBG KomodoChampBG PogChampBG OutPChampBG AnimeRun IsaacBG PokBG HappyHappy MStopera BroOrange EllenLove MStoperaBG BroOrangeBG and done. Thattitude! KEKW! Math whiz, yeah! Yeah. Dave, your name is a unique one. Color Change for Lapras of Nickann...BibleThump. tppAYAYA math whiz! Twitch communication of trash messages has ended, and there is a new station coming soon/later. Yeah! Pokémon getto da ZE! Yo yo yo yo yo! NO I HAVE TO SIT BEHIND A DESK FOR THREE HOURS A FURRET TOLD THE HEAD! Furret (Math whiz)’s reason: giving pork and ham as a gift. MAN I WANT TO APPEAL BUT THERE IS NO FORM!!!!! PLEASE HELP ME I AM THUMPING THE BIBLE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Or else: well, let’s see, it says spamming replies. This is an example: SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM SPAM. But we’ll just ignore that reason for now despite it being in 3 hours to appeal. Man pork and ham. Man ham. Man out. Man out the Monty Python sketch named Spam Spam Spam Spam Spam and you are scrolling through and you find out Spam Spam Spam. So this is a guide of how to make a Longest Text Ever: 1. Write and write on a single webpage with no pictures and write what is coming from your brain. 2. Check the characters after you’re done. 3. If it exceeds 50,000 characters, it is an official LTE (Longest Text Ever). I AM SO CRAZYYYYYYYYYY. WHYYYYYYYY??? BibleThump I got an invitation and you have to see. I HAVE TO SIT BEHIND A DESK WHERE PEOPLE THROW HEAVY BOOKS!!!! Help me!!!!!!!! FOR 6 HOURS! 21,600 SECONDS!!!!! HALF OF HALF OF A DAY! So the invitation expired. And this is the nonsense interruption boy: 5:0KaC !sYeso inspCOT2@ BiG-It!Mo pD:0 !ba @ PZ4v6!ma@ tga@ u)sra9DPMMIDpaCrn, anSu!amPh_t DBs7ar2B@ fa_mi4:voMt!2_iitoMro3111:aK?PoCgraemo%b0nostpupbKaJ!MAIOHZCEl V\0<]I[-GOAWOVI-WGOAoxV!ooYYYYYYYs . L)?eTBpGBpGSpAYmAYZAS MI@ :y5Ka!sAY!S [end] The end of the nonsense. I got a timeout in TPP in chat well because I ... can’t tell you. Well we have :( in the reason, though when I see it in whispers the emote is seen, though when I see it it is chat is it not an emote just :(. Last time I had this I had tppHands. A few days ago I thought this: if the tppHands/Hands timeout had a glitch initially handed from Twitch, I should’ve got a Tier 1 or Tier 3 sub by tpp, the Moon Lotus (the one who timeout me in the Hands ban), and TwitchPlaysPokémon. How I came up with it: initially tppHands is a Tier 1 emote, making a sub to Tier 1, or the Tier 1 sub had an error and was changed into a Tier 3 sub. Anyway, back to my latest timeout. Last time I checked it was 48 minutes, but now it is 18 minutes! Time goes by fast! Anyway, I continued spam (Monty Python reference), pasta (copypasta), multiple warnings, multiple t/o (timeout) already (Phaydra_, the mod who timeout me didn’t make the abbreviation plural because maybe she thought it was strange or a relation to a Twitch emote in BTTV or FFZ named TOS), Please stop (the please is capitalized BibleThump) :( (the emote which shows a robot crying, you can see the tears but the tears are more visible on BibleThump). The thing I thought for this was that I would spam :( as a glitch 256 seconds after I come out from my timeout. Then she or MathyFurret would timeout me again for 9-24 hours and 48 hours respectively (he/she told me before). This timeout is ruining my life. Why? Because of that mistrustful timeout, I didn’t get to clip the opening of Pokémon Snap. The game is important because it was the first to be released by HAL Laboratory (the company that made Kirby and they also developed Pokémon Pinball which is played on this Twitch channel/stream all the time), and it also is played on Nintendo 64, which was released in 1996. It also introduces Todd Snap, a character who is with Ash in the anime later on. Gee, writing this Longest Text Ever is passing the time for my timeout. 3 minutes! I am testing this: a clip records 30 seconds of that stream/channel when made, but if you clip a stream/channel after you come out from a timeout, will it record the stuff FROM the timeout? 1 minute and I come out. This is really passing the time! Also I am watching TV. Well, Jack and Beans is the name of the team that developed Pokémon Snap (originally in 1994 it was named Jack and the Beanstalk). I came out! Now to test. Yes, it does! Oh...it keeps getting worse. Last night, the Moon Lotus TIMEOUT me. (That doesn’t make sense anyway.) Well, the mods have been saying a lot with me. Last time they said this: "Misc, you are continuing to do this. You are upsetting us too much. (Actually I am not, she’s joking) Our timeouts (GG, because I will get revenge on you) has to be too much to show you that being funny too much can always make people mad. (not too much, stop telling the false alarms) We are planning a 48 hour timeout or a 10 week timeout. Remember, we are powerful in this channel, because the streamer has given us the role of moderator. (Streamer was aware of me and put me as a test...I FOUND OUT YESTERDAY).”. And this: "If we, in your user account here, have to get you 25 of these bops from the start, then you will be out for good ;). We are more powerful than you regular users. tppHands You keep ignoring us, sometimes being too hilarious like when we were not here, you said a lot of GAS, and the users poked fun at Dom. We always check the chat logs when we come back to see any users that needs to be warned by moderators (us). And one of those users, in our list, is YOU. You came here 100 days ago, putting inputs and writing replies. But as you grew bigger, you went crazy and upset us (I didn’t, WAS BEING NICE WITH YOU AND STOP IT STREAMER) all day long. That is why you are on 24h. Have a good night!". These messages were today, and by the way I got a sub to brawlicjon! I got emotes, and my experience there was amazing. We opened 4 packs of cards, and on the 3rd pack, we got a Shiny Zapdos, Moltres, and Articuno Pokémon card! It was so exciting!! Also brawlicjon has cool Snorlax emotes, one shows the Snorlax standing up, and I really love that one. My...wait, my timeout is over!! GOOD!!! I am coming back!!!! Ugh. Yesterday I got a 2 day timeout from Phaydra_, and crediting is for MathyFurret. So the story is that the viewers told me to spam because no mods, but actually the mods were lurking. Then Phaydra_ came out fast and BOPPED ME for 2 days. I WANT TO GAIN REVENGE AT HER, AND TELL HER THAT SHE HAS RUINED MY LIFE. Actually 2 times, because this timeout has ruined my life because we started playing New Pokémon Snap. Bad Phaydra_. UGHHHHHHHHHHHHH. Phaydra_ is still not reversing the timeout. Here’s some good news: MathyFurret stepped down from the moderator role! At least there is two left. He or she is the one who...SUGGESTED THE IDEA OF THIS TIMEOUT. If I get a BIG one on that channel, THEN I WILL TELL EVERYBODY THE STORY OF MY LIFE AND HOW THEY RUINED IT. MajinPhil (I was supposed to stay here for the rest of my timeout, but apparently I was supposed to leave today at 7:54 pm...but he removed the scheduled entries for yesterday and today, so technically I performed my leave at not the exact time but 2 day ago when the timeout was effective) is some guy. As I said, Phaydra_ has a great impact on my life at Twitch Plays Pokémon a.k.a. TPP. Yesterday in my timeout they had a Nintendo Switch Pro game...NOT A GOOD TIME SO WE WILL PROTEST!!! Maybe NOT today in China. Imagine if I had a BIG one now. TPP was a famous channel back in 2014. Well, I also spent time on EsKooh (don’t know where he/she got his/her profile picture form, but he uses it on everything in his channel), who had a farm. I first saw it yesterday at an in-game time (or farm time) of March 1967. Now I just checked and it’s midnight on July 19, 1967. Well, about 161 days until we reach this year! That’s what EsKooh said yesterday, but about 162 days. I CANNOT BELIEVE HOW PHAYDRA_ TIMEOUT ME!!!!!! I DON’T LIKE HER/HIM!!!! PLEASE ALL STEP DOWN!!!! MATHYFURRET WILL NOT STEP UP!!!! Ugh, also credit Monty Python’s flying circus sketch named “Spam”. Because it’s in the reason: "the more you continue spamming, the longer your timeouts get”. Out Monty Python...he also named a programming language “Python”. PROTEST NINTENDO!!! PROTEST CARDS (because well Nintendo used to make cards). At least I want Phaydra_ to reverse the timeout (or apply a new timeout for 1 second) me. Mathy’s the one who’s suggested the idea and you heard the good news earlier? He stepped down. So I WANT PHAYDRA_ TO DO THAT!!! Ugh, MathyFurret became moderator again. I saw his/her sword badge. So there is no sign of Phaydra_ reversing the timeout (or applying a new timeout that takes 1 second). Recently MathyFurret announced that he/she won’t be back until 9 hours later. THAT IS THE END OF MY TIMEOUT. So, reflection: the viewers told me to sandstorm ("Eatin’ and drinkin’ in da sandstorm duDudu”) because there is no moderators. I try...BUT THE MODERATORS ARE LURKING, UNKNOWN TO ME. So, when they see this, the moderators, in 2 seconds, make me a timeout that I can stay for 2 days, and they lock the doors to messaging. When thsomeone named this, after Sim (a bot who cuts random messages) replies “TriHard”. Sim, apparently has no idea that I was in a timeout, and randomly said that, and that means that Sim was cheating on me. Sim is my enemy. So, that gives me a lesson that DON’T TRUST THE VIEWERS. Then Silver_Ninja_Guy says my name as "misc TriHard". Then they declare DomDude64 (sorry for saying your name if you find this) the cutest. So Dom is actually my enemy and he was cheating too. I’m behind a door. BAD PHAYDRA_. So TriHard looks and feels like Michael Jackson (the singer). The moderators think I’m bad. OF COURSE A REFERENCE TO ONE OF THE SINGER’S SONGS, I’M BAD. Maybe the mods know my game, the word is out about me in social media...either what the moderators are doing to me next are contained in the lyrics. Currently in my timeout, I see this...HAHAHAHA. 22 minutes until peace! Maybe not, but this lags a lot when I’m editing this. Bye! Hello, I forgot to announce this: When my timeout is done, maybe I will post one to three hashtags, a game (likely Miitopia), a text and a user. These/those are the first Peacekeeper Objects, the Objects that you see after you’ve done your timeout. Bye! Hello, I also forgot that a character, either Old, Dig, This, or Cutie will be part of the Peacekeeper Objects. Bye for 10 minutes! Hello, now Sim’s status is now a friend, not an enemy (all depends on messages before Sim posts his messages). Bye for 8 minutes (short now)! Hello, I also forgot this: For some reason (like Phaydra_ wanting me to have extra minutes on my timeout, or y timglitch), timeout is extended for a few minutes than the expected time. When I said 8 minutes in my goodbye, when I checked it, it was 12 minutes. So 4 minutes extra, I’ve calculated. Bye! Hello, and another thing I forgot: the P.O. (Peacekeeper Objects) might include a room. Bye for 4-5 minutes! Hello, and here are the Peacekeeper Objects: character is Dig (Team Dig, Alolan Diglett because of gold hair), scene (I forgot to tell you about this but it was too late already) is campfire, message and user is “petition to remove wooper hat” of MJComet, game is Miitopia, hashtags are #BanTouhou #LoveTouhou #BadApple! and the room is Outdoors (Outside, Nature). Hey, I’ve tried the new layout and there is this glitch which affects wikis that have been renamed, for example, this wiki and my wiki, the Creative Fanfiction Wiki. When I went to here today, I saw "Biggest Wikia" instead of "Biggest Wiki". And when I go to my wiki, it says "Fictpedia Wiki" (original name) instead of ”Creative Fanfiction Wiki". Remember when I made a reference to one of Michael Jackson’s songs? I’m watching Michael in a video now. It’s in Brazil. Okay, so we are getting more videos. Okay, so actually there was a third LTE, made by RainbowFluffySheep in 2019. And currently, there is nothing on my mind that I could talk about, just Pokémon. Okay, there is another thing I could talk about, which is the audiobooks we’re listening to. Like Slacker, but we’ve done the sample. Another sample is done, and we’re signing in an account. Hello there! I haven't contributed to this Longest Text Ever (using that form instead of LTE to increase the characters here) in a while, but I am contributing using my computer here. Actually, we have another long one that exceeds it, but it's not a LTE. It's more than 800,000 characters. Anyway, it is a fanfiction. Goodbye! Hi, I'm back. It's been a while since I last added something to this LTE. I'm going to check the date I last edited this. Okay, the date is 19 July 2021. And then I was going to say that I was going to check how many characters in this LTE so far. It's 16,537 characters. And then I calculated I type 214.7 characters every day in this LTE by dividing the number of characters (16,537) by the number of days since I created this LTE (77 days), and then I was going to divide the most characters in an official LTE (230,634) by 214.7 characters per day to obtain the number of days it would take to reach the record, but then an accident happened which erased part of my LTE. Now I'm going to calculate the number of days it would take to reach the record! And the number of days is 1,074.2, which is almost 3 years. The Hermnerps person worked on his LTE (the one which has 230,634 characters) for 5 years, from 2004 to 2009. If we calculate the day I would reach the record from the day I created this LTE, the day would be May 1, 2024. But if we calculate from today, August 8, 2021, it would be July 17, 2024. Goodbye! Hello there. I just saw that Fandom just brought back the Site Notice yesterday. Today is August 26, 2021. I am going to play something, so I am going now. Goodbye! Hello there, it’s August 27, 2021. Did you see Google? The game I was referring to yesterday is on Google! So, I am gonna play that game right now, so I’ll just say a very, very quick goodbye! Oh, hello there! Let me check if the game is still there. Yes, it is still there on Google! I’m going to play that game right now, so I’ll just say a very quick goodbye now! Oh, hello there. I just want to tell you something. We (the Red team) have reached 100,000,000! We are currently 103,001,373. I checked it on the beach! So, I’ll just say a very, very quick goodbye! (We used that goodbye yesterday. Today is August 28, 2021. Bye again!) Oh, hello there again. The beach I was referring to was the beach in the game, not a real beach. The beach that has a racetrack for runs (like marathons). Goodbye! Hello there, today is August 29, 2021. I am gonna play that game on Google right now, because it’s still on Google! Let me go to the game on Google. I am playing the game on Google right now! Goodbye! Hello there again! I just wanted to tell you something. The Red Team (us) passed 110 million! That is a very great milestone! The greatest milestone we’ve ever had was the 100,000,000 milestone that happened yesterday or two days ago. We are currently 113,375,124 now, which is more than 10 million from yesterday! I checked that on Oni Island, where they play rugby! I actually went 1,000 yesterday for the first time, and I’ve done it two times already yesterday! I haven’t done it yet today. So, goodbye! Hello there. I just want to tell you something again. I got the skateboarding, rugby and archery scrolls! Goodbye! Hello there again! I wanted to tell you something. I got the scrolls for table tennis and artistic swimming! Which means I have 5 scrolls now! I saw the champion of artistic (or synchronized, as it says on the statues of her) swimming give me the scroll! Now, I can try the climbing and marathon stuff, because I haven’t earned their scrolls yet! The first time I saw someone give me my scroll was when I was given my skateboarding scroll (my first scroll) in Tanooki City! Goodbye! Hello there! I am very sorry that I didn’t add to this Longest Text Ever yesterday. Today is August 31, 2021! I am playing the game on Google right now, if they have the game. Yes, it is still there! So, I am gonna play the game right now! Goodbye! Hello there! I’m very sorry I didn’t add more to this Longest Text Ever. I was going to play the game on Google, but since it wasn’t there, we found it on Google doodles. It still has my progress! Okay, we now have passed 200,000,000 on the leaderboard! It is now 245,028,264. I thought it was a glitch, but it says that on my leaderboard, and also it says that in the leaderboard in the main square! Anyways, why I was telling how we found the game on Google doodles to you like it didn’t happen now is that it didn’t happen now. An accident happened when it was happening and I had to write it again. And also, why I thought that the leaderboard had a glitch is because that all the other teams had more than 100,000,000 on the leaderboard. So, goodbye! Hello there! It’s been three days since I last edited this Longest Text Ever. Since they don’t have the game on Google as the doodle right now, well, we found it (again) on Google doodles. We are now going to play it. Goodbye! Hello there. The reason I think it’s not on Google as the doodle right now is because yesterday, we had the scene in the doodle having petals fall over the island after you have defeated all the champions. The ones before yesterday featured one champion each day. So, goodbye! Hello there. Today is September 7, 2021. I forgot to tell you yesterday that I figured out how to stop the rain! An article in a Fandom wiki gave me a clue. Oh, and now I am playing this game on Google Doodles. I have figured out how to find the game that only can be found by lantern light. I’m going to check the trophies and the Trophy Master right now. I checked and I am going to the forest to figure out why the village there is abandoned. Okay, we have found the reason why the village is abandoned, so we are going to a city in the game. We are going to the forest again, since we got a clue! So, we are going to the trophy house to check. Yes! We are going to Oni Island. Okay, now we are going to the northwest docks. Now we are at Marathon Beach. We have ran two times already today there! So, I’ll play the game and do other stuff. Goodbye! Hello there, it has been 5 days since I last edited this Longest Text Ever. I am gonna play the game on Google on Google doodles right now. Goodbye! Hello there! First, I would like to say I haven’t edited in a while. Anyway, it is a very exciting moment. It is happening at 9:59 pm today. Almost 10:00 pm! 6 minutes now. It is 9:53 pm. The TV is talking about energy consumption. I’m so excited! In fact, I’m super excited! 5 minutes now. It is 9:54 pm! The TV is showing an underground train station in China. Now, I could use "underground.train.station" for what3words. For every 3 meter square on Earth, each one is assigned three words (more than four letters), separated by periods. There are 57 trillion of them. The main goal of what3words is to help people know their location. And some people are rescued by that app! Those people have said to download the app! 1 minute now. It is 9:58 pm! I’m super excited! 14 seconds have passed since 9:59 pm came! YAAAAAAAAAAAYYYYY!!!! Goodbye!

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Eighth Copy and Paste[]

List of EGOT winners From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search "EGOT" redirects here. For other uses, see EGOT (disambiguation). EGOT, an acronym for the Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony Awards, is the designation given to people who have won all four awards.[1][2] Respectively, these awards honor outstanding achievements in television, recording, film, and theatre.[3] Achieving the EGOT has been referred to as the "grand slam" of show business.[1][4] As of 2020, 16 people have accomplished this feat.[5]

The EGOT acronym was coined by actor Philip Michael Thomas in late 1984, when his role on the new hit show Miami Vice brought him instant fame, and he stated a desire to achieve the EGOT within five years.[6][7] However, he intended that the "E" should be for the Primetime Emmy Award, and not a Daytime Emmy nor any of the awards presented at the other types of Emmy ceremonies.[8] Nevertheless, two of the 16 EGOT winners have won only the Daytime Emmy.

The term gained wider recognition in the 2010s after a series-long arc in the 4th season of the sitcom 30 Rock featured the character of Tracy Jordan (portrayed by Tracy Morgan) setting out to achieve the EGOT.[9]


Contents 1 Variations 2 Winners of all four awards 3 Additional recipients of all four (including non-competitive or special/honorary awards) 4 Qualifying awards summary (competitive only) 4.1 Richard Rodgers 4.2 Helen Hayes 4.3 Rita Moreno 4.4 John Gielgud 4.5 Audrey Hepburn 4.6 Marvin Hamlisch 4.7 Jonathan Tunick 4.8 Mel Brooks 4.9 Mike Nichols 4.10 Whoopi Goldberg 4.11 Scott Rudin 4.12 Robert Lopez 4.13 Andrew Lloyd Webber 4.14 Tim Rice 4.15 John Legend 4.16 Alan Menken 5 Winners including non-competitive awards 5.1 Barbra Streisand 5.2 Liza Minnelli 5.3 James Earl Jones 5.4 Harry Belafonte 5.5 Quincy Jones 6 Three competitive awards 6.1 Missing a Tony Award 6.2 Missing a Grammy Award 6.3 Missing an Emmy Award 6.4 Missing an Academy Award (Oscar) 6.5 Notes 7 Three awards (non-competitive) 7.1 Notes 8 Four nominations 8.1 Notes 9 PEGOT 9.1 Notes 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Variations[edit] The only Double EGOT — a person who has won all four awards at least twice — is songwriter Robert Lopez, who is also the youngest person to achieve EGOT status, at 39 years, 8 days; and who won his first four awards in the shortest time (a span of 9 years, 8 months).

Another variation of the accomplishment is the PEGOT, though there are conflicting definitions. Some say the "P" refers to the Peabody Award,[10][11] others say the Pulitzer Prize. As of 2019, Mike Nichols, Rita Moreno and Barbra Streisand (if her Special Tony Award is considered) have achieved this status by winning the Peabody;[12] while Richard Rodgers and Marvin Hamlisch have achieved it by winning the Pulitzer.[13]

Another variation is the REGOT, which includes a Razzie.[14][15] Alan Menken has a REGOT due to his Razzie win with Jack Feldman for Worst Original Song for “High Times, Hard Times" from Newsies.[16] Due to her Razzie win for Worst Actress for Rent-a-Cop and Arthur 2: On the Rocks, Liza Minnelli has a REGOT if her Grammy Legend Award is considered.[17]

No one has yet achieved the all-inclusive PREGOT variation.

Lynn Redgrave is the only performer who has achieved the anti-EGOT of being nominated for all four awards and not winning any of them.[18]

Winners of all four awards[edit] Name Emmy Grammy Oscar Tony Year span Age at completion Category(s) Richard Rodgers 1962 1960[n 1] 1945 1950[n 1][n 2] 17 59 years, 10 months Composer Helen Hayes[n 3] 1953 1977 1932[n 1] 1947[n 1][n 2] 45 76 years, 4 months Actress Rita Moreno[n 3] 1977[n 1] 1972 1961 1975 16 45 years, 9 months Actress/Singer John Gielgud 1991 1979 1981 1961[n 1],[n 2] 30 87 years, 4 months Actor/Director Audrey Hepburn 1993[n 4] 1994[n 4] 1953[n 2] 1954[n 2] 41 63 years, 8 months[n 4] Actress Marvin Hamlisch 1995[n 1] 1974[n 1] 1973[n 1] 1976 22 51 years, 3 months Composer Jonathan Tunick 1982 1988 1977 1997 20 59 years, 1 month Composer/Conductor Mel Brooks 1967[n 1] 1998[n 1] 1968 2001[n 1] 34 74 years, 11 months Writer/Composer/Actor Mike Nichols 2001[n 1] 1961 1967 1964[n 1] 40 69 years, 11 months Director/Comedian Whoopi Goldberg 2002[n 1][n 2][n 5] 1986 1990 2002 16 46 years, 6 months Comedian/Actress/Host Scott Rudin 1984 2012 2007 1994[n 1] 28 53 years, 6 months Producer Robert Lopez[n 6] 2008[n 1] 2012[n 1] 2013[n 1] 2004[n 1] 10 39 years Composer Andrew Lloyd Webber 2018[n 7] 1980[n 1][n 2] 1996 1980[n 1][n 2] 38 70 years, 5 months Composer/Producer Tim Rice 2018[n 7] 1980[n 1] 1992[n 1] 1980[n 1] 38 73 years, 9 months Lyricist/Producer John Legend 2018[n 7] 2006[n 1] 2015 2017 12 39 years, 8 months Singer/Composer/Producer Alan Menken 2020[n 2][n 5] 1992[n 1] 1989[n 1] 2012 30 70 years, 11 months Composer/Producer Notes:

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab The artist also subsequently won one or more additional competitive awards. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i The artist also received one or more honorary or non-competitive awards. ^ Jump up to: a b The artist also earned the Triple Crown of Acting, with singular (non-group/ensemble/company) acting wins in the Emmy, Oscar, and Tony awards. ^ Jump up to: a b c The artist was awarded posthumously. ^ Jump up to: a b The artist has won a Daytime Emmy Award, not a Primetime Emmy Award. ^ The artist has subsequently achieved multiple EGOTs. ^ Jump up to: a b c Legend, Lloyd Webber, and Rice achieved their EGOTs simultaneously with their shared Emmy Award for producing Jesus Christ Superstar Live in Concert Additional recipients of all four (including non-competitive or special/honorary awards)[edit] Five other artists—Liza Minnelli, James Earl Jones, Barbra Streisand, Harry Belafonte, and Quincy Jones—have also received all four awards, but at least one of the awards was non-competitive, i.e., special or honorary in nature (Streisand's Tony, Minnelli's Grammy, and both Joneses' and Belafonte's Oscars).[3]

Artist 1st Award 2nd Award 3rd Award 4th Award Year span Barbra Streisand 1964 Grammy 1965 Emmy 1968 Oscar 1970 Special Tony Award 6 Liza Minnelli 1965 Tony 1972 Oscar 1973 Emmy 1990 Grammy Legend Award 25 James Earl Jones 1969 Tony 1977 Grammy 1991 Emmy 2011 Academy Honorary Award (Oscar) 42 Harry Belafonte 1954 Tony 1960 Emmy 1961 Grammy 2014 Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (Oscar) 60 Quincy Jones 1964 Grammy 1977 Emmy 1994 Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (Oscar) 2016 Tony 52 Qualifying awards summary (competitive only)[edit] Richard Rodgers[edit]

Richard Rodgers became the first person to win all four awards in 1962. Richard Rodgers (1902–1979), a composer, received his fourth distinct award in 1962. Between 1945 and 1979, Rodgers received a total of 13 awards.

Academy Awards: 1945: Best Song – "It Might as Well Be Spring" from State Fair Primetime Emmy Awards: 1962: Outstanding Achievement in Original Music Composed – Winston Churchill: The Valiant Years Grammy Awards: 1960: Best Show Album (Original Cast) – The Sound of Music 1962: Best Original Cast Show Album – No Strings Tony Awards: 1950: Best Musical – South Pacific 1950: Tony Award for Producers, Musical – South Pacific 1950: Best Score – South Pacific 1952: Best Musical – The King and I 1960: Best Musical – The Sound of Music 1962: Best Composer – No Strings Special Awards: 1962: Special Tony Award "for all he has done for young people in the theatre and for taking the men of the orchestra out of the pit and putting them onstage in No Strings" 1972: Special Tony Award 1979: Special Tony Award, Lawrence Langner Memorial Award for Distinguished Lifetime Achievement in the American Theatre Helen Hayes[edit]

Helen Hayes became the second person and first woman to win all four awards in 1977. Helen Hayes (1900–1993), an actress, received her fourth distinct award in 1977. Between 1932 and 1980, Hayes received a total of 7 awards. She was the first woman to win all four. Hayes was also the first person to win the Triple Crown of Acting, with singular (non-group/ensemble/company) acting wins in each of the Emmy, Oscar, and Tony awards, winning her third in 1953. Counting only the first award of each type, she also has the distinction of the longest timespan (45 years) between her first and fourth award of any showbiz Grand Slam winner.

Academy Awards: 1932: Best Actress in a Leading Role – The Sin of Madelon Claudet 1970: Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Airport Primetime Emmy Awards: 1953: Best Actress – Schlitz Playhouse of Stars for the episode "Not a Chance" Grammy Awards: 1977: Best Spoken Word Recording – Great American Documents Tony Awards: 1947: Best Actress, Dramatic – Happy Birthday 1958: Best Actress, Dramatic – Time Remembered Special Awards: 1980: Special Tony Award, Lawrence Langner Memorial Award for Distinguished Lifetime Achievement in the American Theatre Rita Moreno[edit]

Rita Moreno became the third person and first Hispanic American to win all four awards in 1977. Rita Moreno (born 1931), an actress, received her fourth distinct award in 1977. Between 1961 and 1978, Moreno received a total of five awards.[19] She is also the first Latina winner and the first winner to win a Grammy as their second award (both previous winners won Tonys as their second award). In addition, she became a Kennedy Center Honoree in 2015 and on March 28, 2019, it was announced that she would receive a Peabody Award.

Academy Awards: 1961: Best Actress in a Supporting Role – West Side Story Primetime Emmy Awards: 1977: Outstanding Continuing or Single Performance by a Supporting Actress in Variety or Music – The Muppet Show 1978: Outstanding Lead Actress for a Single Appearance in a Drama or Comedy Series – The Rockford Files for the episode "The Paper Palace" Grammy Awards: 1972: Best Recording for Children – The Electric Company Tony Awards: 1975: Best Featured or Supporting Actress in a Play – The Ritz John Gielgud[edit]

John Gielgud became the fourth person to win all four awards in 1991, the oldest (at age 87), the first LGBT person, and the first foreigner. John Gielgud (1904–2000), an actor, received his fourth distinct award in 1991. Between 1948 and 1991, Gielgud received a total of six awards. Gielgud was the first winner to win any award other than the Oscar as their first award (his first award was a Tony). At age 87 when he won his Emmy, he was also the oldest winner, is the first LGBT winner, and the first non-American.

Academy Awards: 1981: Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Arthur Primetime Emmy Awards: 1991: Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Special – Summer's Lease Grammy Awards: 1979: Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording – Ages of Man Tony Awards: 1948: Outstanding Foreign Company – The Importance of Being Earnest 1961: Best Director of a Drama – Big Fish, Little Fish Special Awards: 1959: Special Tony Award "for contribution to theatre for his extraordinary insight into the writings of Shakespeare as demonstrated in his one-man play Ages of Man" Audrey Hepburn[edit]

Audrey Hepburn became the fifth person to win all four awards in 1994, and the first to complete it posthumously. Audrey Hepburn (1929–1993), an actress, received her fourth distinct award posthumously in 1994. Between 1953 and 1994, Hepburn received a total of six awards. She was the fifth person to complete the feat and the first to do so posthumously. She was also the first winner to win two of their awards in consecutive awards shows (the 1994 Grammys were the first Grammys since her posthumous win at the 1993 Emmys). She is one of the only two EGOT winners (the other being Jonathan Tunick) to not win multiple awards in any of the four award fields.

Academy Awards: 1953: Best Actress in a Leading Role – Roman Holiday Primetime Emmy Awards: 1993: Outstanding Individual Achievement, Informational Programming – Gardens of the World with Audrey Hepburn Grammy Awards: 1994: Best Spoken Word Album for Children – Audrey Hepburn's Enchanted Tales Tony Awards: 1954: Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play – Ondine Special Awards: 1968: Special Tony Award 1993: Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award Marvin Hamlisch[edit]

Marvin Hamlisch became the sixth person to win all four awards in 1995. Marvin Hamlisch (1944–2012), a composer, received his fourth distinct award in 1995. Between 1973 and 2001, Hamlisch received a total of 12 awards. Before Alan Menken joined the group in 2020, Hamlisch had the most Oscars of any Grand Slam winners (three - all won in the same year). In 1974 he became the first winner to have won a "General Field" Grammy – taking Song of the Year and Best New Artist. He was also the first Grand Slam winner to have won multiple legs of the feat for the same work – an Oscar and a Grammy for the song "The Way We Were".

Academy Awards: 1973: Best Music, Original Dramatic Score – The Way We Were 1973: Best Music, Original Song – "The Way We Were" 1973: Best Music, Scoring Original Song Score and/or Adaptation – The Sting Primetime Emmy Awards: 1995: Outstanding Individual Achievement in Music Direction – Barbra: The Concert 1995: Outstanding Individual Achievement in Music and Lyrics – Barbra: The Concert 1999: Outstanding Music and Lyrics – AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies 2001: Outstanding Music Direction – Timeless: Live in Concert Grammy Awards: 1974: Song of the Year – The Way We Were 1974: Best New Artist 1974: Best Pop Instrumental Performance – "The Entertainer" 1974: Album of Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special – The Way We Were Tony Awards: 1976: Best Musical Score – A Chorus Line Jonathan Tunick[edit] Jonathan Tunick (born 1938), a composer, conductor, and music arranger received his fourth distinct award in 1997. Between 1977 and 1997, Tunick received a total of four awards. Tunick is the first Grand Slam winner to have won an Emmy as their second award as well as the first to win the Tony as their fourth award. He is also the second person (after Audrey Hepburn) to not win multiple awards in any of the four award fields.

Academy Awards: 1977: Best Music, Original Song Score, and Its Adaptation or Best Adaptation Score – A Little Night Music Primetime Emmy Awards: 1982: Outstanding Achievement in Music Direction – Night of 100 Stars Grammy Awards: 1988: Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocals – "No One is Alone," Cleo Laine Tony Awards: 1997: Best Orchestrations – Titanic Mel Brooks[edit]

Mel Brooks became the eighth person to win all four awards in 2001. Mel Brooks (born 1926), a director, writer and actor, received his fourth distinct award in June 2001. Between 1968 and 2002, Brooks received a total of 11 awards.[20] Brooks was the first person to win the Emmy as the first award, and the first winner to have won his Oscar for screenwriting.

Academy Awards: 1968: Best Writing (Story and Screenplay-Written Directly for the Screen) – The Producers Primetime Emmy Awards: 1967: Outstanding Writing Achievement in Variety – The Sid Caesar, Imogene Coca, Carl Reiner, Howard Morris Special 1997: Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series – Mad About You 1998: Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series – Mad About You 1999: Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series – Mad About You Grammy Awards: 1998: Best Spoken Comedy Album – The 2000 Year Old Man in the Year 2000 2002: Best Long Form Music Video – Recording 'The Producers': A Musical Romp with Mel Brooks 2002: Best Musical Show Album – The Producers Tony Awards: 2001: Best Musical – The Producers 2001: Best Book of a Musical – The Producers 2001: Best Original Score – The Producers When he appeared on the January 30, 2015 episode of Real Time with Bill Maher, Brooks called himself an EGOTAK, noting that he had also received awards from the American Film Institute and Kennedy Center.

Mike Nichols[edit]

Mike Nichols became the ninth person to win all four awards in 2001, and had the longest timespan (51 years) of all the winners when counting all awards. Mike Nichols (1931–2014), a director, actor, and comedian received his fourth distinct award in November 2001. Between 1961 and 2012, Nichols received a total of 15 awards. Nichols was the first slam winner to win the Grammy as their first award, the first winner to have won multiple awards (an Oscar, several Tonys, and two Emmys) for directing. When counting all awards won—not just the first of each type—Nichols has the longest timespan of awards among Grand Slam winners, at 51 years.

Academy Awards: 1967: Best Director – The Graduate Primetime Emmy Awards: 2001: Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special – Wit 2001: Outstanding Made for Television Movie – Wit 2004: Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special – Angels in America 2004: Outstanding Miniseries – Angels in America Grammy Awards: 1961: Best Comedy Performance – An Evening with Mike Nichols and Elaine May Tony Awards: 1964: Best Director, Dramatic – Barefoot in the Park 1965: Best Director, Dramatic – Luv and The Odd Couple 1968: Best Director, Dramatic – Plaza Suite 1972: Best Director, Dramatic – The Prisoner of Second Avenue 1977: Best Musical – Annie 1984: Best Director, Play – The Real Thing 1984: Best Play – The Real Thing 2005: Best Director, Musical – Monty Python's Spamalot 2012: Best Director, Play – Death of a Salesman Whoopi Goldberg[edit]

Whoopi Goldberg became the tenth person to win all four awards in 2002, the first African American winner and first winner to win two of their awards in the same year. Whoopi Goldberg (born 1955), an actress, comedian, and talk-show host received her fourth distinct award in 2002. Between 1985 and 2009, Goldberg received a total of 6 awards.[21] Goldberg is the first African American winner, the first to win the Oscar as their second award, and the first to win two of their different awards in the same year (she won both her first Daytime Emmy and her Tony in 2002).

Academy Awards: 1990: Best Supporting Actress – Ghost Daytime Emmy Awards: 2002: Outstanding Special Class Special – Beyond Tara: The Extraordinary Life of Hattie McDaniel (Host) 2009: Outstanding Talk Show Host – The View Grammy Awards: 1986: Best Comedy Album – Whoopi Goldberg (Original Broadway Show Recording) Tony Awards: 2002: Best Musical – Thoroughly Modern Millie Special Awards: 1997: Special Emmy Award, Governors Award, for the seven Comic Relief Benefit Specials Scott Rudin[edit] Scott Rudin (born 1958), a film, TV, and theater producer received his fourth distinct award in 2012. Between 1984 and 2021, Rudin received a total of 21 awards making him, together with Alan Menken, the person with the most awards won among the people who have won all four awards in competitive categories. Rudin is the first winner who is primarily a producer.

Academy Awards: 2007: Best Picture – No Country for Old Men Primetime Emmy Awards: 1984: Outstanding Children's Program – He Makes Me Feel Like Dancin' Grammy Awards: 2012: Best Musical Theater Album – The Book of Mormon: Original Broadway Cast Recording Tony Awards: 1994: Best Musical – Passion 2000: Best Play – Copenhagen 2002: Best Play – The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia? 2005: Best Play – Doubt 2006: Best Play – The History Boys 2009: Best Play – God of Carnage 2010: Best Revival of a Play – Fences 2011: Best Musical – The Book of Mormon 2012: Best Revival of a Play – Death of a Salesman 2014: Best Revival of a Play – A Raisin in the Sun 2015: Best Play – The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time 2015: Best Revival of a Play – Skylight 2016: Best Play – The Humans 2016: Best Revival of a Play – A View From the Bridge 2017: Best Revival of a Musical – Hello, Dolly! 2019: Best Play – The Ferryman 2019: Best Revival of a Play – The Boys in the Band 2021: Best Play – The Inheritance Robert Lopez[edit]

Robert Lopez became the twelfth person to win all four awards in 2013, the first Asian American, the youngest (at age 39), the fastest to achieve the feat (10 years), and the only person to achieve multiple EGOTs. Robert Lopez (born 1975), a songwriter, received his fourth distinct award in 2014. Between 2004 and 2021, Lopez received a total of 11 awards. Like fellow EGOT winner Whoopi Goldberg, his only Emmy awards were Daytime Emmys until he won a Primetime Emmy in 2021 for WandaVision. Lopez is the first Filipino and Asian to achieve this feat. He is also the youngest winner to receive all four awards in competitive categories, as well as the fastest to complete his qualifying run of EGOT award wins (10 years). He is also the second EGOT recipient (after John Legend) to have won both Primetime and Daytime Emmy Awards.

He received his Grammy Award for The Book of Mormon in collaboration with fellow EGOT winner Scott Rudin (among others), making them the first pair of Grand Slam winners to have been co-winners of the same award. Lopez is also the first person to have won the Oscar last, which he won with his wife Kristen Anderson-Lopez.[22] He is also the first winner to win the so-called "Double EGOT", winning each EGOT award at least twice.[23][24]

Academy Awards: 2013: Best Original Song – "Let It Go" from Frozen 2017: Best Original Song – "Remember Me" from Coco Primetime Emmy Awards: 2021: Outstanding Original Music and Lyrics – "Agatha All Along" from WandaVision Daytime Emmy Awards: 2008: Outstanding Music Direction and Composition – Wonder Pets! 2010: Outstanding Music Direction and Composition – Wonder Pets! Grammy Awards: 2012: Best Musical Theater Album – The Book of Mormon: Original Broadway Cast Recording 2015: Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media – Frozen 2015: Best Song Written for Visual Media – "Let It Go" from Frozen Tony Awards: 2004: Best Original Score – Avenue Q 2011: Best Book of a Musical – The Book of Mormon 2011: Best Original Score – The Book of Mormon Andrew Lloyd Webber[edit]

Andrew Lloyd Webber won all four awards in 2018 and is the 13th person to do so. Andrew Lloyd Webber (born 1948), a musical theatre composer, songwriter and producer, received his fourth distinct award in 2018. Between 1980 and 2018, Lloyd Webber received a total of 13 awards.

Academy Awards: 1996: Best Original Song – "You Must Love Me" from Evita Primetime Emmy Awards: 2018: Outstanding Variety Special (Live) – Jesus Christ Superstar Live in Concert Grammy Awards: 1980: Best Cast Show Album – Evita 1983: Best Cast Show Album – Cats 1986: Best Contemporary Composition – Requiem Tony Awards: 1980: Best Original Score – Evita 1983: Best Musical – Cats 1983: Best Original Score – Cats 1988: Best Musical – The Phantom of the Opera 1995: Best Musical – Sunset Boulevard 1995: Best Original Score – Sunset Boulevard Special Awards: 1990: Grammy Legend Award 2018: Special Tony Award Tim Rice[edit]

Tim Rice won all four awards in 2018 and is the 14th person to do so. Tim Rice (born 1944), a lyricist and producer, received his fourth distinct award in 2018. Between 1980 and 2018, Rice received a total of 12 awards, and shares some of his awards with his regular collaborator Andrew Lloyd Webber.

Academy Awards: 1992: Best Original Song – "A Whole New World" from Aladdin 1994: Best Original Song – "Can You Feel the Love Tonight" from The Lion King 1996: Best Original Song – "You Must Love Me" from Evita Primetime Emmy Awards: 2018: Outstanding Variety Special (Live) – Jesus Christ Superstar Live in Concert Grammy Awards: 1980: Best Cast Show Album – Evita 1993: Song of the Year – "A Whole New World (Aladdin's Theme)" 1993: Best Musical Album for Children – Aladdin - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 1993: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television – "A Whole New World (Aladdin's Theme)" 2000: Best Musical Show Album – Aida Tony Awards: 1980: Best Original Score – Evita 1980: Best Book of a Musical – Evita 2000: Best Original Score – Aida John Legend[edit]

In 2018 John Legend became the first African American man to win all four awards.[25] John Legend (born 1978), a musician and producer, received his fourth distinct award in 2018. Between 2006 and 2021, Legend received a total of 16 awards. Legend has won the most Grammy Awards, 12, of any EGOT recipient, and is the first recipient who is primarily a musical performer. In addition to being the first black man to achieve EGOT status,[26] Legend is the first person to receive the four awards in four consecutive years.[27] He was also the first EGOT recipient to have won both a competitive Primetime and Daytime Emmy Award, an accomplishment matched by Robert Lopez in 2021. Legend, Andrew Lloyd Webber, and Tim Rice all simultaneously became EGOT recipients on September 9, 2018, when they were collectively awarded the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Special (Live) for Jesus Christ Superstar Live in Concert.[28]

Academy Awards: 2015: Best Original Song – "Glory" from Selma Primetime Emmy Awards: 2018: Outstanding Variety Special (Live) – Jesus Christ Superstar Live in Concert Daytime Emmy Awards: 2019: Outstanding Interactive Media for a Daytime Program – Crow: The Legend Grammy Awards: 2006: Best New Artist 2006: Best R&B Album – Get Lifted 2006: Best Male R&B Vocal Performance – "Ordinary People" 2007: Best Male R&B Vocal Performance – "Heaven" 2007: Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals – "Family Affair" 2009: Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals – "Stay with Me (By the Sea)" 2011: Best R&B Song – "Shine" 2011: Best Traditional R&B Vocal Performance – "Hang on in There" 2011: Best R&B Album – Wake Up! 2016: Best Song Written for Visual Media – "Glory" 2020: Best Rap/Sung Performance – "Higher" 2021: Best R&B Album – Bigger Love Tony Awards: 2017: Best Revival of a Play – Jitney Alan Menken[edit]

Alan Menken became the sixteenth person to win all four awards in 2020. Alan Menken (born 1949), a composer and songwriter, received his fourth distinct award in 2020.[29] Between 1989 and 2020, Menken received a total of 21 awards. He has the most Oscar wins (8) by a grand slam winner and is the second most prolific Oscar winner in the music categories after Alfred Newman. He is also notable for frequently having multiple songs from the same film nominated for major awards.

Academy Awards: 1989: Best Original Score – The Little Mermaid 1989: Best Original Song – "Under the Sea" from The Little Mermaid 1991: Best Original Score – Beauty and the Beast 1991: Best Original Song – "Beauty and the Beast" from Beauty and the Beast 1992: Best Original Score – Aladdin 1992: Best Original Song – "A Whole New World" from Aladdin 1995: Best Original Musical or Comedy Score – Pocahontas 1995: Best Original Song – "Colors of the Wind" from Pocahontas Daytime Emmy Awards: 2020: Outstanding Original Song in a Children's, Young Adult or Animated Program – "Waiting in the Wings" from Rapunzel's Tangled Adventure Grammy Awards: 1991: Best Recording for Children – The Little Mermaid: Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack 1991: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television – "Under the Sea" from The Little Mermaid 1993: Best Album for Children – Beauty and the Beast: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 1993: Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television – Beauty and the Beast: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 1993: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television – "Beauty and the Beast" from Beauty and the Beast 1994: Song of the Year – "A Whole New World (Aladdin's Theme)" from Aladdin 1994: Best Musical Album for Children – Aladdin: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 1994: Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television – Aladdin: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 1994: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television – "A Whole New World" from Aladdin 1996: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television – "Colors of the Wind" from Pocahontas 2012: Best Song Written for Visual Media – "I See the Light" from Tangled Tony Awards: 2012: Best Original Score – Newsies Special Awards: 1990: Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Contribution to the success of the Academy's anti-drug special for children – "Wonderful Ways to Say No" from the TV special Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue Winners including non-competitive awards[edit] The following artists have also received all of the four major awards. However, in each case, one of these awards has been received only in an honorary or other non-competitive category. (Streisand has not received a competitive Tony, Minnelli has not received a competitive Grammy, and Belafonte, James Earl Jones, and Quincy Jones have not received a competitive Oscar.)

Barbra Streisand[edit]

Barbra Streisand became the first woman, youngest winner (at age 28) and the fastest to achieve the feat (6 years) to win all four awards in 1970. However her Tony is a non-competitive award. Barbra Streisand (born 1942), a singer, actress and director, received her fourth distinct award in 1970. Between 1963 and 2001, Streisand received a total of 18 awards. Having completed the showbiz Grand Slam at age 28, she is the youngest winner, and with just six years elapsing between her first award (a 1964 Grammy) and her final award (a 1970 Special Tony), Streisand also completed the Grand Slam in the shortest amount of time. She is also the only winner to have won an Oscar in both a music and an acting category. She is also the only winner to have won all of her competitive awards for her debut performances (her first musical album, feature film and television special, respectively). She also received the Peabody Award, the AFI Life Achievement Award, the Kennedy Center Honor, the Cecil B. DeMille Award, the National Medal of Arts, the American Society of Cinematographers Board of Governors Award, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Academy Awards: 1968: Best Actress in a Leading Role – Funny Girl 1976: Best Original Song – "Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born)" Primetime Emmy Awards: 1965: Outstanding Individual Achievements in Entertainment – Actors and Performers – My Name is Barbra 1995: Outstanding Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program – Barbra Streisand: The Concert 1995: Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Special – Barbra Streisand: The Concert 2001: Outstanding Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program – Timeless: Live in Concert Daytime Emmy Awards: 2001: Outstanding Special Class Special – Reel Models: The First Women of Film Grammy Awards: 1964: Best Vocal Performance, Female – The Barbra Streisand Album 1964: Album of the Year (Other Than Classical) – The Barbra Streisand Album 1965: Best Vocal Performance, Female – "People" (from the musical Funny Girl) 1966: Best Vocal Performance, Female – My Name Is Barbra 1978: Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female – "Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born)" 1978: Song of the Year – "Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born)" 1981: Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal – "Guilty" (with Barry Gibb) 1987: Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female – The Broadway Album 1992: Grammy Legend Award (non-competitive) 1995: Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (non-competitive) Tony Awards: 1970: Special Tony Award: Star of the Decade (non-competitive) Liza Minnelli[edit]

Liza Minnelli has each of the four awards, having won her fourth in 1990, but her Grammy is a non-competitive award. Liza Minnelli (born 1946), an actress and singer, received her fourth distinct award in 1990. Between 1965 and 2009, Minnelli received a total of 7 awards.

Academy Awards: 1972: Best Actress in a Leading Role – Cabaret Primetime Emmy Awards: 1973: Outstanding Single Program − Variety and Popular Music – Liza with a 'Z'. A Concert for Television Grammy Awards: 1990: Grammy Legend Award (non-competitive) Tony Awards: 1965: Best Leading Actress in a Musical – Flora the Red Menace 1974: Special Tony Award for "adding lustre to the Broadway season" (non-competitive) 1978: Best Leading Actress in a Musical – The Act 2009: Best Special Theatrical Event – Liza's at The Palace...! James Earl Jones[edit]

James Earl Jones has each of the four awards, having won his fourth in 2011, but his Oscar is a non-competitive award. James Earl Jones (born 1931), an actor, received his fourth distinct award in 2011. Between 1969 and 2011, Jones received a total of 7 awards.

Academy Awards: 2011: Academy Honorary Award (non-competitive) Primetime Emmy Awards: 1991: Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series – Gabriel's Fire 1991: Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie – Heat Wave Daytime Emmy Awards: 2000: Outstanding Performer − Children's Special – Summer's End Grammy Awards: 1977: Best Spoken Word Recording – Great American Documents Tony Awards: 1969: Best Leading Actor in a Play – The Great White Hope 1987: Best Leading Actor in a Play – Fences 2017: Special Tony Award for Lifetime Achievement in the Theatre (non-competitive) Harry Belafonte[edit]

Harry Belafonte has each of the four awards, having won his fourth in 2014, but his Oscar is a non-competitive award. Harry Belafonte (born 1927), an actor, received his fourth distinct award in 2014. Between 1954 and 2014, Belafonte received a total of 6 awards.

Academy Awards: 2014: Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (non-competitive) Primetime Emmy Awards: 1960: Outstanding Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program – Tonight with Belafonte - The Revlon Revue Grammy Awards: 1961: Best Performance – Folk – Swing Dat Hammer 1966: Best Folk Performance – An Evening with Belafonte/Makeba 2000: Grammy Hall of Fame Award Tony Awards: 1954: Best Featured Actor in a Musical – John Murray Anderson's Almanac Quincy Jones[edit]

Quincy Jones has each of the four awards, having won his fourth in 2016, but his Oscar is a non-competitive award. Quincy Jones (born 1933), a record producer, actor and composer, received his fourth distinct award in 2016. Between 1964 and 2016, Jones received a total of 31 awards — the highest number of awards of any grand slam winner. He has 28 Grammy Awards and a Grammy Legend Award received in 1992.

Academy Awards: 1994: Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (non-competitive) Primetime Emmy Awards: 1977: Outstanding Music Composition for a Series – Roots Grammy Awards: 1964: Best Instrumental Arrangement – "I Can't Stop Loving You" 1970: Best Instrumental Jazz Performance - Large Group Or Soloist With Large Group – Walking in Space 1972: Best Pop Instrumental Performance – Smackwater Jack 1974: Best Instrumental Arrangement – "Summer in the City" 1979: Best Instrumental Arrangement – "The Wiz Main Title (Overture, Part One)" 1981: Best Instrumental Arrangement – "Dinorah, Dinorah" 1982: Producer of the Year 1982: Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s) – "Ai No Corrida" (with Jerry Hey) 1982: Best Arrangement on an Instrumental Recording – "Velas" 1982: Best Cast Show Album – Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music 1982: Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal – "The Dude" 1984: Producer of the Year (Non-Classical) 1984: Best Recording For Children – E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial 1984: Album of the Year – Thriller 1984: Record of the Year – "Beat It" 1985: Best Arrangement on an Instrumental – "Grace (Gymnastics Theme)" (with Jeremy Lubbock) 1986: Best Music Video, Short Form – "We Are the World – The Video Event" 1986: Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals – "We Are the World" 1986: Record of the Year – "We Are the World" 1991: Producer of the Year (Non-Classical) 1991: Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s) – "The Places You Find Love" 1991: Best Arrangement on an Instrumental – "Birdland" 1991: Best Jazz Fusion Performance – "Birdland" 1991: Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group – "Back on the Block" 1991: Album of the Year – Back on the Block 1994: Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance – Miles & Quincy Live at Montreux 2002: Best Spoken Word Album – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones 2019: Best Music Film – Quincy Tony Awards: 2016: Best Revival of a Musical – The Color Purple Three competitive awards[edit] The following people have each won three out of the four major entertainment awards in competitive categories.[30]

Missing a Tony Award[edit] John Addison† Kristen Anderson-Lopez◊ Julie Andrews[note 1]◊ Burt Bacharach◊ Alan Bergman Marilyn Bergman Jon Blair George Burns† Cher Common Rob Epstein Michael Giacchino Alex Gibney Alex Gibson Ludwig Göransson Brian Grazer◊ Hildur Guðnadóttir Ron Howard Jennifer Hudson James MollPA Morgan Neville Randy Newman Sid Ramin† Trent Reznor Caitrin Rogers Atticus Ross Martin Scorsese Barbra Streisand◊, PA, NCA Peter Ustinov†, ◊ John Williams Robin Williams† Kate Winslet Missing a Grammy Award[edit] Jack Albertson†, TC Anne Bancroft†, TC Ingrid Bergman†, TC Shirley Booth†, TC Ralph Burns†, ◊ Ellen Burstyn◊,TC Viola DavisTC Melvyn Douglas†, TC Bob Fosse† Jeremy Irons◊, TC Glenda JacksonTC Jessica LangeTC Frances McDormandTC Liza Minnelli◊, NCA Helen MirrenTC Thomas Mitchell†, TC Al Pacino◊, TC Christopher Plummer[note 2]†, ◊, TC Vanessa Redgrave◊, TC Jason Robards†, ◊, TC Geoffrey RushTC Paul Scofield†, ◊, TC Maggie SmithTC Maureen Stapleton†, ◊, TC Jessica Tandy†, TC Tony Walton[note 3] Missing an Emmy Award[edit] Henry Fonda†, ◊ Joel Grey◊ Oscar Hammerstein II†, PP Elton John Alan Jay Lerner† Frank Loesser†, PP Benj Pasek◊ Justin Paul◊ Stephen Sondheim†, PP Jule Styne† Missing an Academy Award (Oscar)[edit] Harry BelafonteNCA Leonard Bernstein†, ◊ Jerry Bock†, PP Martin Charnin†, PA Cy Coleman†, ◊ André De Shields Fred Ebb†, ◊ Cynthia Erivo◊ Anne GarefinoPA George Grizzard† Julie Harris†, ◊ Hugh Jackman◊ James Earl Jones◊, NCA Quincy Jones◊, NCA Rachel Bay Jones John Kander◊ Tom KittPP Alex Lacamoire Stan LathanPA Cyndi Lauper Katrina Lenk Audra McDonald Bette Midler◊ Lin-Manuel Miranda◊, PP Cynthia Nixon Trey Parker[note 4]◊, PA Ben Platt Billy Porter Marc Shaiman◊ Bill Sherman[32] Ari'el Stachel Matt StonePA Charles StrousePA Lily Tomlin◊, PA Dick Van Dyke James Whitmore†, ◊ David Yazbek Notes[edit] † – Person is deceased. ◊ – Person has been nominated at least once for a competitive category of the missing award, but has failed to win. NCA – Person won a Non-Competitive Award in this category (see section above). PA – Person has won the Peabody Award PP – Person has won the Pulitzer Prize TC – Person joins EGOT winners Hayes and Moreno as winners of the Triple Crown of Acting, with singular (non-group/ensemble/company) acting wins in each of the Emmy, Oscar and Tony awards. ^ In 1996, Julie Andrews declined a Tony Award nomination for her role in Victor/Victoria in protest that the production received no other nominations.[31] She was also Tony-nominated for My Fair Lady and Camelot. ^ With his 2012 Oscar win, Plummer became the oldest (82) to win the "Triple Crown of Acting". ^ Tony Walton is the only costume/set designer to win three different awards. ^ Trey Parker placed second in the narrative/dramatic division of 1993's Student Academy Awards for his college short American History. Three awards (non-competitive)[edit] In addition to the above winners, the following people have each won three out of the four major entertainment awards in either competitive categories or non-competitive special and honorary categories.

Howard Ashman†, ◊ won two competitive Oscars, five competitive Grammy Awards, and a Special Emmy Award. Fred Astaire† won three competitive Emmy Awards, a Special Academy Award, and a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Robert Russell Bennett† won a competitive Emmy Award, a competitive Oscar, and two Special Tony Awards. Irving Berlin† won an Academy Award, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and a competitive Tony award. Carol Burnett won six competitive Emmy Awards, one competitive Grammy award, and a Special Tony Award. David Byrne won an Academy Award, a competitive Grammy Award, and a Special Tony Award. Walt Disney† won 26 competitive Academy Awards, seven competitive Emmy Awards, and a Grammy Trustees Award. Ray Dolby† won an Academy Scientific and Technical Award, two Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, and a Special Merit/Technical Grammy Award. Judy Garland†, ◊ won an Academy Juvenile Award, two competitive Grammy Awards, and a Special Tony Award. Eileen Heckart† won a competitive Academy Award, a competitive Emmy Award, and a Special Tony Award. Barry Manilow won two competitive Emmy Awards, a competitive Grammy Award, and a Special Tony Award. Steve Martin◊ won the Honorary Academy Award, a competitive Emmy Award, and five competitive Grammy Awards. Laurence Olivier†, ◊ won two competitive Oscars, five competitive Emmy Awards, and a Special Tony Award. Stephen Schwartz won three competitive Oscars, three competitive Grammys and the Isabelle Stevenson Award, a non-competitive Tony Award. Bruce Springsteen◊ won 20 competitive Grammys, a competitive Academy Award, and a Special Tony Award. Thomas Stockham† won an Academy Scientific and Technical Award, a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award, and a Technical Grammy Award. Cicely Tyson† won three competitive Emmy Awards, a competitive Tony Award, and an Academy Honorary Award. Eli Wallach† won a competitive Tony Award, a competitive Emmy Award, and an Academy Honorary Award. Oprah Winfrey won competitive Emmy Awards, a competitive Tony Award, and the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, a non-competitive Academy Award. Notes[edit] † – Person is deceased. ◊ – Person has been nominated at least once for a competitive category of the missing award, but has failed to win. Four nominations[edit] The following people have not won all four awards in competitive categories, but have received at least one nomination for each of them:

Lynn Ahrens Alan Alda Joan Allen Woody Allen Judith Anderson† Kristen Anderson-Lopez Julie Andrews Alan Arkin Howard Ashman[note 1]† Burt Bacharach Lauren Bacall† Ed Begley† Elmer Bernstein† Leonard Bernstein† Ralph Burns† Ellen Burstyn Richard Burton† Sammy Cahn† Keith Carradine Diahann Carroll† Stockard Channing Glenn Close Cy Coleman† Fred Ebb† Cynthia Erivo José Ferrer† Henry Fonda† Jane Fonda Morgan Freeman Judy Garland[note 2]† Jack Gilford† Brian Grazer Joel Grey Julie Harris† Katharine Hepburn† Jeremy Irons Hugh Jackman James Earl Jones Quincy Jones John Kander Angela Lansbury Michel Legrand† Jack Lemmon† John Lithgow Kenny Loggins Steve Martin[note 3] Bette Midler Liza Minnelli Lin-Manuel Miranda Paul Newman† Laurence Olivier† Leslie Odom Jr. Al Pacino Trey Parker Dolly Parton Benj Pasek Justin Paul Christopher Plummer† Sidney Poitier André Previn† Lynn Redgrave[note 4]† Vanessa Redgrave Jason Robards† Mark Ruffalo Adam Schlesinger† Paul Scofield† Marc Shaiman David Shire Paul Simon Glenn Slater Will Smith Tom Snow Kevin Spacey Bruce Springsteen[note 5] Sting Maureen Stapleton† Barbra Streisand Meryl Streep Lily Tomlin Stanley Tucci Peter Ustinov† Jimmy Van Heusen† Denzel Washington James Whitmore† Mare Winningham Scott Wittman Hans Zimmer Notes[edit] † – Person is deceased. ^ Howard Ashman was never nominated for an Emmy, but won a special Emmy Award for his contributions to Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue. ^ Judy Garland was never nominated for a Tony, but did receive a Special Tony Award. ^ Steve Martin has not received an Oscar nomination, but has won an Academy Honorary Award. ^ Lynn Redgrave is the only person to date to be nominated at least once for each of the four awards, without winning any. ^ Bruce Springsteen has not received a Tony nomination, but received a Special Tony Award. PEGOT[edit] A PEGOT winner is someone who has won all four EGOT awards as well as a Peabody Award[33] or Pulitzer Prize.[34]

EGOT winners who have also won a Peabody Award:

Barbra Streisand[33][note 1] Mike Nichols[33] Rita Moreno[10] EGOT winners who have also won a Pulitzer Prize:

Richard Rodgers[34] Marvin Hamlisch[34] People who have won a Peabody, and are only missing one EGOT award:

Carol Burnett[note 2] (missing an Oscar) Martin Charnin (missing an Oscar) Anne Garefino (missing an Oscar) James Moll (missing a Tony) Trey Parker (missing an Oscar) Matt Stone (missing an Oscar) Charles Strouse (missing an Oscar) Lily Tomlin (missing an Oscar) Cicely Tyson[note 3] (missing a Grammy) Oprah Winfrey[note 4] (missing a Grammy) Of these ten, only Charnin and Tyson are deceased as of 2021. Parker and Tomlin were nominated for a 1999 Oscar for Best Original Song and 1975 Oscar for Best Supporting Actress, respectively, but did not win.

People who have won a Pulitzer, and are only missing one EGOT award:

Jerry Bock (missing an Oscar) Oscar Hammerstein II (missing an Emmy) Tom Kitt (missing an Oscar) Frank Loesser (missing an Emmy) Lin-Manuel Miranda (missing an Oscar) Stephen Sondheim (missing an Emmy) Of these six, only Miranda and Kitt are still alive as of 2021. Miranda was nominated for a 2017 Oscar for Best Original Song but did not win.[34]

Notes[edit] ^ Streisand's Tony Award was non-competitive. ^ Burnett's Tony Award was non-competitive. ^ Tyson's Academy Award was non-competitive. ^ Winfrey's Academy Award was non-competitive. See also[edit] Triple Crown of Acting Academy Awards Emmy Awards Daytime Emmy Awards International Emmy Awards Primetime Emmy Awards Grammy Awards Tony Awards References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Quinn, Dave (January 24, 2017). "What Is an EGOT? The Grand Slam of Show Business — Explained". People.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. ^ "Creative Arts Emmys: John Legend, Tim Rice, Andrew Lloyd Webber Become EGOT Winners With 'Jesus Christ Superstar'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 10, 2018. ^ Jump up to: a b Smith, Liz (June 5, 2009). "Phyllis Newman Honored!" Archived March 3, 2014, at archive.today. wowowow. ^ Graham, Renee (August 19, 2003). "Looking to the stars for a little Hope". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2010. ^ "16 stars who are EGOT winners". Entertainment Weekly. July 27, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020. ^ Long, Tim (February 26, 2008). "The Oscars: Where Is the Love for Philip Michael Thomas?". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on December 7, 2009. ^ McIntee, Michael (January 12, 2010). "Wahoo Gazette. Show #3244". CBS. Archived from the original on May 7, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2010. ^ Marotta, Jenna (March 24, 2016). "Fact-Checking the Egot, with Philip Michael Thomas". Thrillist.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017. ^ Surray, Miles; Berezenak, Alyssa (February 21, 2019). ""Who's an EGOT?" How '30 Rock' Made a Fake Award Into a Real-Life Goal". Retrieved January 27, 2020. ^ Jump up to: a b "Rita Moreno to join elite 'PEGOT' club with upcoming Peabody Award". USA Today. Associated Press. March 28, 2019. ^ Wong, Curtis M. (March 28, 2019). "Rita Moreno Is Set To PEGOT When She Picks Up Her Peabody Award". HuffPost. ^ Saad, Nardine (March 28, 2019). "Rita Moreno is getting a Peabody Award, making her a rare 'PEGOT' winner". Los Angeles Times. ^ Renzulli, Kerri Anne (February 21, 2019). "These fifteen people have won an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony–here's who could achieve EGOT status next". CNBC. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (August 5, 2013). "Alan Menken Goes for the EGOT (and the REGOT)". The New York Times. ^ Lockyer, Margaret (July 31, 2020). "Two EGOT Winners Are Also Razzie 'Winners'". CBR. ^ Ortiz, Aimee (July 28, 2020). "With Daytime Emmy, Alan Menken Joins the Elite EGOT Club". The New York Times. ^ Carter, Karen (September 10, 2014). "EGOT's, REGOT's, and Those Who Are On Their Way". NY Tix. ^ "Lynn Redgrave". Classic Movie Hub. ^ Castro, Iván A. (2006). "Rita Moreno". 100 Hispanics you should know. Libraries Unlimited. p. 188. ISBN 1-59158-327-6. ^ Simonson, Robert (June 4, 2001). "With Producers, Mel Brooks Has Won Tony, Oscar, Grammy and Emmy". Playbill. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2010. ^ Waldron, Clarence (April 14, 2008). "The view according to Whoopi". Jet. Retrieved January 1, 2010. ^ "As it happened: 12 years a slave, Gravity are big Oscar winners". FirstPost. March 3, 2014. ^ Schwartz, Dana (March 5, 2018). "Oscars 2018: Robert Lopez becomes the first person in history to double EGOT". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 5, 2018. ^ Brandle, Lars (March 5, 2018). "Oscars 2018: Robert Lopez Is The First Double EGOT Winner". Billboard. Retrieved March 5, 2018. ^ Galand, Shayanne; Clark, Travis (September 10, 2018). "This chart shows how long it took all 15 EGOT winners to get their awards, and John Legend was one of the fastest". Business Insider. ^ Scheibelhut, Ashley (September 11, 2018). "John Legend Is First Black Man To Achieve EGOT Status". www.chill.us. ^ Hogan, Michael (June 20, 2018). "How a Single Emmy Win Could Expand the Tiny EGOT Club by 25 Percent". Vanity Fair. ^ Chuba, Kirsten (September 10, 2018). "John Legend, Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice Become Newest EGOTs With Emmy Win". Variety. Retrieved September 11, 2018. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (July 26, 2020). "Alan Menken Achieves EGOT Status With Daytime Emmy Win". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 27, 2020. ^ O'Neil, Tom (August 15, 2008). "Who will be the next winner of the showbiz awards grand slam?". Gold Derby. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010. ^ Marks, Peter (May 9, 1996). "Adding Drama to a Musical, Andrews Spurns the Tonys". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2014. ^ "About". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c Holston, Noel (December 1, 2015). "The Ultimate Show Biz Coup: PEGOT". The Peabody Awards. Retrieved March 15, 2019. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Victor, Daniel (February 26, 2017). "Sorry, Lin-Manuel Miranda, No EGOT for You This Year". The New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2018. External links[edit] Official website of the Emmy Awards Official website of the Grammy Awards Official website of the Academy Awards Official website of the Tony Awards Official website of the Peabody Awards Official website of the Pulitzer Prize showvte People who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards show Links to related articles Categories: Academy Award winnersAcademy Awards listsEmmy Award winnersGrammy Award winnersTony Award winnersLists of actorsLists of composers1984 introductions Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

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Languages Deutsch Español Français Bahasa Indonesia Italiano 日本語 Português Русский 中文 10 more Edit links This page was last edited on 29 November 2021, at 05:23 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Ninth Copy and Paste[]

Dwight Garner From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Dwight Garner (critic))

Jump to navigationJump to search For the football player, see Dwight Garner (American football). Dwight Garner Born January 8, 1965 (age 56)[citation needed] Fairmont, West Virginia, U.S. Occupation Writer, journalist Alma mater Middlebury College Genre Criticism, non-fiction Dwight Garner (born 1965) is an American journalist and a longtime writer and editor for The New York Times. In 2008, he was named a book critic for the newspaper. His reviews appear on Tuesdays.


Contents 1 Journalism and writing 2 Early life and work 3 References 4 External links Journalism and writing[edit] Garner's previous post at The New York Times was as senior editor of The New York Times Book Review, where he worked from 1999 to 2008. He was a founding editor of Salon.com,[1] where he worked from 1995 to 1998. His monthly column in Esquire magazine[2] was a finalist for the National Magazine Award in 2017.[3]

His essays and journalism have appeared in The New York Times Magazine, Harper's Magazine, The Times Literary Supplement, the Oxford American, Slate, The Village Voice, the Boston Phoenix, The Nation,[1] and elsewhere. For several years he wrote the program notes for Lincoln Center's American Songbook Series.[4] He has served on the board of the National Book Critics Circle. In a January 2011 column for Slate, the journalist Timothy Noah called Garner a "highly gifted critic" who had reinvigorated The New York Times's literary coverage, and likened him to Anatole Broyard and John Leonard.[5]

"If you read just one literary critic in the Times, you should read Dwight Garner. But let's say you don't read any books sections, which would sadly put you in the vast majority of the population: You should still read Dwight Garner", Benjamin Errett wrote in Toronto's The National Post.[6] Garner "is an excellent guide to what to read, so much so that he's often all you need to read."

Garner wrote a biweekly column for The New York Times called "American Beauties", which focused on under-sung American books of the past 75 years.[7] His championing of certain titles—including The Collected Novels of Charles Wright[8] and On Fire by Larry Brown[9]—helped return them to print. For Esquire, Garner played in the 2017 World Backgammon Championship in Monaco.[10] He is a member of the Organ Meat Society.[11]

Early life and work[edit] Garner was born in Fairmont, West Virginia[12] and grew up in that state and in Naples, Florida. Garner graduated from Middlebury College, where he majored in American literature.[13] While in college, he wrote book criticism for The Village Voice, music and theater criticism for the Vanguard Press, a Burlington, Vermont alternative weekly, and was a stringer for The New York Times.

After his graduation from college, Garner was a reporter for The Addison Independent. He then became the arts editor of Vermont Times, a new alternative weekly in Burlington. He also became a contributing editor to the Boston Phoenix. In the 1990s Garner was a columnist for the Hungry Mind Review. After moving to New York City in 1994, he worked for one year as an associate editor at Harper's Bazaar [14] under the editorship of Liz Tilberis.

Garner lives in New York City. He is married to Cree LeFavour,[15] author of the memoir Lights On, Rats Out[16][17] and several acclaimed cookbooks.[18] He is the author of Read Me: A Century of Classic American Book Advertisements.[19]

References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Author bio Archived October 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine at HarperCollins ^ "Dwight Garner". Esquire. ^ https://asme.magazine.org/about-asme/pressroom/asme-press-releases/asme/ellies-2017-finalists-announced ^ American Songbook Series. ^ Noah, Timothy (January 7, 2011). "I Like Dwight". Slate. Retrieved December 24, 2013. ^ Benjamin Errett in The National Post. ^ "American Beauties" in The New York Times. ^ Garner, Dwight (February 23, 2017). "The Pleasures of a Writer Who Was 'Richard Pryor on Paper'". NYTimes.com. ^ Garner, Dwight (June 1, 2017). "On Fire Makes Bad Habits Sound Very Sweet". NYTimes.com. ^ Garner, Dwight (April 3, 2019). "How I Won the War Against Regret Playing Backgammon in Monte Carlo". Esquire. ^ "Cocktails & Carnage: The Organ Meat Society". Roads & Kingdoms. December 19, 2013. ^ Garner, Dwight (August 12, 2010). "The Greenbrier Resort Hopes to Preserve Its Past". The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2013. ^ Podhaizer, Suzanne (January 9, 2008). "Cooking the Books". Seven Days. Retrieved December 24, 2013. ^ Garner, Dwight. "Dwight Garner | Harper's Magazine". harpers.org. ^ "20 More Cookbooks". The New York Times. June 1, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2013. ^ Lights On, Rats Out | Grove Atlantic. groveatlantic.com. ^ Merkin, Daphne (July 24, 2017). "An Odyssey Through Self-Harm and Out the Other Side". NYTimes.com. ^ http://www.creelefavour.com/cree/ ^ "Read Me: A Century of Classic American Book Advertisements" at Amazon. External links[edit] The New York Times archive of reviews Knight News interview, 2007 hide Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 1 VIAF 1 WorldCat National libraries United States Netherlands Categories: American literary critics1965 birthsLiving peopleCritics employed by The New York TimesMiddlebury College alumniJournalists from West VirginiaPeople from Fairmont, West Virginia20th-century American journalistsAmerican male journalists Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate Contribute Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Wikidata item Print/export Download as PDF Printable version

Languages العربية Bahasa Indonesia مصرى Edit links This page was last edited on 21 September 2021, at 08:22 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Copy and Paste 10[]

Jim Leyland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Jim Leyland Jim Leyland 2013.jpg Leyland with the Detroit Tigers in 2013 Catcher / Coach / Manager Born: December 15, 1944 (age 76) Perrysburg, Ohio Bats: Right Throws: Right MLB statistics Games managed 3,499 Managerial record 1,769–1,728 Winning % .506 Teams As coach Chicago White Sox (1982–1985) As manager Pittsburgh Pirates (1986–1996) Florida Marlins (1997–1998) Colorado Rockies (1999) Detroit Tigers (2006–2013) Career highlights and awards World Series champion (1997) 3× Manager of the Year (1990, 1992, 2006) James Richard Leyland (born December 15, 1944) is an American former professional baseball player, coach and manager. He serves as a special assistant to the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball (MLB).

Leyland led the Florida Marlins to the 1997 World Series championship over the Cleveland Indians, and previously won three straight division titles (1990, 1991, and 1992) with the Pittsburgh Pirates. With the Tigers' victory in the 2006 American League Championship Series, Leyland became the seventh manager in history to win pennants in both the National and American Leagues. He is a three-time Manager of the Year Award winner, twice in the National League (1990 and 1992), and once in the American League (2006).


Contents 1 Early career 2 Managerial career 2.1 Pittsburgh Pirates 2.2 Florida Marlins and Colorado Rockies 2.3 Detroit Tigers 2.4 Team USA 3 Managerial record 4 Personal life 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Early career[edit] Leyland began his baseball career with the Tigers when they signed him as a catcher on September 21, 1963. He spent seven seasons as a minor leaguer in the Tigers organization (1964–1970), but mainly served as a coach with the Montgomery Rebels in 1970 while playing in just two games for the team. Leyland was a career .222 hitter in the minor leagues.

In 1972, Leyland became a minor league manager in the Tigers organization; beginning with the Clinton Pilots of the Midwest League; from 1979–1981, he was the manager of the Evansville Triplets winning two divisions (1979, 1981) in the American Association.

Leyland left the Tigers organization for the first time in 1982 when he became Tony La Russa's third base coach for four seasons (1982–85) with the Chicago White Sox, including the team's 1983 AL West division title, before being named the 33rd manager in Pittsburgh Pirates history on November 20, 1985.

Managerial career[edit] Pittsburgh Pirates[edit] Leyland was the manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1986 to 1996. He won two Manager of the Year trophies with the Pirates in 1990 and 1992, and finished as runner-up in 1988 and 1991. Leyland helped develop such All-Stars as Barry Bonds, Jay Bell, Tim Wakefield, Andy Van Slyke and Bobby Bonilla in Pittsburgh before a fire sale in the mid-1990s soured him with new ownership. Under Leyland, the Pirates captured the National League Eastern Division title and went to the National League Championship Series in three straight seasons (1990, 1991, and 1992). Pittsburgh averaged 96 regular season victories those three years, but lost all three times in the NLCS with the latter two going the full seven games against the Atlanta Braves. The Pirates lost to the Cincinnati Reds (four games to two) in the 1990 NLCS.

Although he has moved on in his career, Leyland still keeps his home in the Pittsburgh suburb of Thornburg, Pennsylvania, where he has raised two children, Pat[1] and Kellie with his wife Katie. Patrick was a minor league catcher-first baseman in the Detroit (2010-2014) and Seattle (2015) organizations.

Leyland decided to quit after 11 seasons spent with the Pirates in order to manage a contender despite a contract that ran to 2000 with a salary of $1 million, stating that it was not a tough decision but a sad one, noting his dissatisfaction with owner Kevin McClatchy on trades and salary cutting.[2]

One member of Leyland's coaching staff while with the Pirates, Terry Collins, who was most recently the manager of the New York Mets, wore number 10 to honor Leyland.[3][4][5]

Florida Marlins and Colorado Rockies[edit] In 1997, Leyland was hired by Wayne Huizenga to manage the Florida Marlins and promptly led them to the franchise's first World Championship that year, defeating the Cleveland Indians—four games to three—in the Fall Classic. The Marlins, in only their fifth year of existence, became the fastest expansion franchise to win a World Series. The Arizona Diamondbacks surpassed the Marlins when they won the World Series in 2001, their fourth season.

In the offseason, Huizenga dismantled the team in what became known as "the fire sale." After Game 7, when asked about rumors that he might retire if Huizenga sold the franchise, Leyland quipped, "My wife doesn't like me that much. I can't retire."[6] Leyland indeed remained as the manager, but resigned after the 1998 season, when the Marlins went 54–108. Due to the details of his contract (alongside the team finding itself in the process of being sold), he received a $500,000 buyout for the remaining three years of his five-year contract. [7] Leyland was subsequently hired by the Colorado Rockies for the 1999 season. Leyland reached 1,000 wins on April 15, leading the Rockies to a 6-4 win over the San Diego Padres at Coors Field. He achieved the feat in his 2,048th game as manager. [8][9] Leyland ultimately came to regret the decision to manage in Colorado, saying that while he was treated well by the team, he felt he could not manage well with Coors Field in regards to pitching, as he described himself as "pitcher's manager." He walked away from the final two years of his contract after one season. [10] It was the fifth time in Leyland's 14 seasons that he skippered a team that finished last in its division. After this, he became a Pittsburgh-based scout for the St. Louis Cardinals.[11]

Detroit Tigers[edit]

Leyland hits balls to Miguel Cabrera during pregame warmups at Kauffman Stadium, June 4, 2010 Following the release of Alan Trammell as the manager of the Tigers, Leyland was hired as new Tigers manager, returning to the franchise with which he spent the first 18 years of his professional baseball career.[12] It marked the first time Leyland managed in the American League.

In the 2006 regular season, Leyland guided the Tigers to a 95–67 record, the Tigers best season since 1987. The Tigers entered the playoffs as a wild card, and went on to defeat the New York Yankees and sweep the Oakland Athletics to win the American League pennant before falling to the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2006 World Series. In leading the team to the AL pennant, he became the seventh manager to win pennants in both major leagues, joining Joe McCarthy, Yogi Berra, Alvin Dark, Sparky Anderson, Dick Williams, and Tony La Russa. After the 2006 season ended, Leyland was recognized with the Manager of the Year award for the third time in his career. He became the third person to win the award in both leagues, joining La Russa and Bobby Cox. Leyland also won The Sporting News Manager of the Year Award for the American League in 2006.


Leyland in Tigers dugout at Dodger Stadium, June 22, 2011 The Tigers had heightened expectations after the pennant, but they muddled through the next four seasons, which included a last place finish in 2008 (the sixth and last time Leyland had skippered a last place team). Leyland would reach 1,500 wins on April 15, 2011 with a win over the Oakland Athletics, becoming the 19th manager to do so. [13][14] That year, he would lead the Tigers to another 95–67 regular season record (an improvement of 14 wins), winning the American League Central Division. They went on to defeat the New York Yankees in the American League Division Series before losing to the Texas Rangers in the American League Championship Series.

On May 1, 2012, Leyland gained his 1,600th victory as a major league manager, passing Tommy Lasorda on the all-time wins list.[15] In 2012, Leyland led the Tigers to an 88–74 regular season record, winning the American League Central Division. On that team, Tigers third baseman Miguel Cabrera was the American League Triple Crown winner that season. This was the first Triple Crown winner in Major League Baseball since Carl Yastrzemski in 1967. When the Tigers won the AL Central for the second consecutive season, Leyland became the only Tigers manager besides Hughie Jennings to lead Detroit to the postseason three times.

In the 2012 postseason, Detroit defeated the Athletics in a five-game ALDS and returned to the World Series following a sweep of the New York Yankees in the American League Championship Series. Detroit was swept in the 2012 World Series by the San Francisco Giants. They were shut out twice, the same number as in the entire 162-game regular season, and had a team batting average of .159.

On September 25, 2013, Leyland won his 700th game with the Tigers. With the 1–0 victory over the Minnesota Twins, the Tigers clinched their third consecutive American League Central Division title.[16] Leyland joined former coach Tony La Russa as the only managers who have led two different MLB franchises to three consecutive division titles. Of the eleven managers to have won three pennants, seven did so in the divisional era, and Leyland has the second most playoff appearances to have won three pennants with eight, with only Terry Francona having more appearances. His 44 postseason wins are tied for fourth most in MLB history with Bruce Bochy, while his 40 losses are fourth most. He retired from managing following the 2013 season, remaining with the Tigers organization as a special assistant.[17][18] He was replaced by Brad Ausmus.

Team USA[edit] On April 15, 2016, Leyland was named the manager of Team USA at the 2017 World Baseball Classic. The United States won the 2017 tournament under his leadership, making Leyland the only manager to win a World Series and a WBC title.[19]

Managerial record[edit] Team From To Regular season record Post–season record Ref. W L Win % W L Win % Pittsburgh Pirates 1986 1996 851 863 .496 8 12 .400 [20] Florida Marlins 1997 1998 146 178 .451 11 5 .688 [20] Colorado Rockies 1999 1999 72 90 .444 0 0 – [20] Detroit Tigers 2006 2013 700 597 .540 25 23 .521 [20] Total 1769 1728 .506 44 40 .524 — Personal life[edit] His son, Pat Leyland, was drafted by the Tigers in 2010 and has also played in the Seattle Mariners and Baltimore Orioles organizations.[21] On May 30, 2017, Leyland was one of eight new inductees announced for the Michigan Sports Hall of Fame in Detroit. The ceremony took place on September 15, 2017.

See also[edit] Biography portal icon Baseball portal List of Major League Baseball managers by wins References[edit] ^ Tehan, Patrick (October 13, 1991). "Sunday Briefing". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved March 27, 2016 – via Google News Archive Search. ^ "Leyland Intends to Resign". The New York Times. 18 September 1996. ^ Rumberg, Howe (November 23, 2010). "Terry Collins introduced as Mets' manager". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved December 12, 2010. ^ Rubin, Adam (December 8, 2010). "Leyland praises Collins". ESPNNewYork.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010. ^ Rubin, Adam (November 23, 2010). "TC on No. 10". ESPNNewYork.com. Retrieved December 12, 2010. ^ Kiszla, Mark (October 27, 1997). "Passionate man the last of a breed". Denver Post. p. C-01. ^ "Leyland Quits Marlins, Talks to Rockies". Los Angeles Times. 2 October 1998. ^ "Rockies Give Leyland 1000th Win". CBS News. ^ "San Diego Padres at Colorado Rockies Box Score, April 15, 1999". ^ "Will Jim Leyland ever make into the Hall of Fame?". ^ "PLUS: BASEBALL – ST. LOUIS; Leyland to Scout". Nytimes.com. December 1, 1999. Retrieved October 7, 2011. ^ "Tigers pounce quickly, hire Leyland to manage". ESPN.com. Associated Press. October 4, 2005. Retrieved October 16, 2013. ^ "Tigers manager Jim Leyland wins No. 1,500 but isn't much of a milestone guy". 17 April 2011. ^ "Detroit Tigers at Oakland Athletics Box Score, April 15, 2011". ^ "Austin Jackson's 4 hits, Rick Porcello's pitching lead Tigers over Royals". espn.com. Retrieved 3 May 2012. ^ "Tigers shut out Twins to win Central title". Reuters. September 26, 2013. ^ "Leyland steps down after eight years with Tigers". MLB.com. October 21, 2013. ^ "Detroit Tigers". Detroit Free Press. ^ Fenech, Anthony (April 15, 2016). "Jim Leyland to manage Team USA in World Baseball Classic". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 15, 2016. ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Jim Leyland". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 5, 2014. ^ "Detroit Tigers prospect Pat Leyland follows footsteps of father, Tigers manager Jim Leyland". External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Leyland. 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George Washington From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the first president of the United States. For other uses, see George Washington (disambiguation). George Washington Head and shoulders portrait of George Washington Portrait based on the unfinished Athenaeum Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1796 1st President of the United States In office April 30, 1789[a] – March 4, 1797 Vice President John Adams Preceded by Office established Succeeded by John Adams 7th Senior Officer of the United States Army In office July 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799 President John Adams Preceded by James Wilkinson Succeeded by Alexander Hamilton Commander in Chief of the Continental Army In office June 19, 1775[2] – December 23, 1783 Appointed by Continental Congress Preceded by Office established Succeeded by Henry Knox (as Senior Officer) 14th Chancellor of the College of William & Mary In office April 30, 1788 – December 14, 1799 President James Madison Preceded by Richard Terrick (1776) Succeeded by John Tyler (1859) Delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress In office September 5, 1774 – June 16, 1775 Preceded by Office established Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses In office July 24, 1758[3][4] – June 24, 1775[5] Preceded by Hugh West[6][7] Succeeded by Office abolished Constituency Frederick County (1758–1765) Fairfax County (1765–1775)[5] Personal details Born February 22, 1732 Popes Creek, Virginia, British America Died December 14, 1799 (aged 67) Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S. Cause of death Epiglottitis Resting place Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S. 38°42′28.4″N 77°05′09.9″W Political party Independent Spouse(s) Martha Dandridge ​(m. 1759)​ Children John Parke Custis (adopted) Parent(s) Augustine Washington Mary Ball Washington Relatives Washington family Residence Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S. Occupation Military officerpolitician Awards Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress[8] Signature Cursive signature in ink Military service Allegiance Great Britain United States Branch/service Virginia Militia Continental Army United States Army Years of service 1752–1758 (Virginia Militia) 1775–1783 (Continental Army) 1798–1799 (U.S. Army) Rank Colonel (Virginia Militia) General and Commander in Chief (Continental Army) Lieutenant General (U.S. Army) General of the Armies (promoted posthumously in 1976 by Congress) Commands Virginia Regiment Continental Army United States Army Battles/wars French and Indian War Battle of Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Braddock Expedition Battle of the Monongahela Forbes Expedition American Revolutionary War Boston campaign New York and New Jersey campaign Philadelphia campaign Yorktown campaign Northwest Indian War Whiskey Rebellion George Washington (February 22, 1732[b] – December 14, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continental Congress as commander of the Continental Army, Washington led the Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War, and presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which established the Constitution of the United States and a federal government. Washington has been called the "Father of the Nation"[10] for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the country.

Washington's first public office was serving as official Surveyor of Culpeper County, Virginia from 1749 to 1750. Subsequently, he received his initial military training (as well as a command with the Virginia Regiment) during the French and Indian War. He was later elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress. Here he was appointed Commanding General of the Continental Army. With this title, he commanded American forces (allied with France) in the defeat and surrender of the British at the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War. He resigned his commission after the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.

Washington played an indispensable role in adopting and ratifying the Constitution of the United States. He was then twice elected president by the Electoral College unanimously. As president, he implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty. He set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "Mr. President", and his Farewell Address is widely regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism.

Washington owned over a hundred slaves, and he signed measures passed by Congress to protect slavery, as well as measures passed by Congress to curtail slavery. Starting in 1778, he had become troubled with the institution of slavery and freed William Lee, one of his slaves, in his will. He freed the other 123 slaves that he owned upon the death of his wife, Martha Washington. She decided to respect her husband's wishes and freed these slaves on January 1, 1801, before her death. He also freed in his will 33 more slaves that he acquired in a prior debt agreement with his brother-in-law.[11][12] He endeavored to assimilate Native Americans into the Anglo-American culture but fought indigenous resistance during instances of violent conflict. He was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, and he urged broad religious freedom in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[13]

Washington has been memorialized by monuments, a federal holiday, various media, geographical locations, including the national capital, the State of Washington, stamps, and currency, and many scholars and polls rank him among the greatest U.S. presidents. In 1976, as part of commemorations for the U.S. Bicentennial, Washington was posthumously promoted to the rank of General of the Armies of the United States.


Contents 1 Early life (1732–1752) 2 Colonial military career (1752–1758) 2.1 French and Indian War 3 Marriage, civilian, and political life (1755–1775) 3.1 Opposition to British Parliament and Crown 4 Commander in chief (1775–1783) 4.1 Siege of Boston 4.2 Battle of Long Island 4.3 Crossing the Delaware, Trenton, and Princeton 4.4 Brandywine, Germantown, and Saratoga 4.5 Valley Forge and Monmouth 4.6 West Point espionage 4.7 Southern theater and Yorktown 4.8 Demobilization and resignation 5 Early republic (1783–1789) 5.1 Return to Mount Vernon 5.2 Constitutional Convention of 1787 5.3 Chancellor of William & Mary 5.4 First presidential election 6 Presidency (1789–1797) 6.1 Cabinet and executive departments 6.2 Domestic issues 6.2.1 African Americans 6.2.2 National Bank 6.2.3 Jefferson–Hamilton feud 6.2.4 Whiskey Rebellion 6.3 Foreign affairs 6.4 Native American affairs 6.5 Second term 6.6 Farewell Address 7 Retirement (1797–1799) 7.1 Final days and death 8 Burial, net worth, and aftermath 9 Personal life 9.1 Religion and Freemasonry 10 Slavery 10.1 Abolition and manumission 11 Historical reputation and legacy 11.1 Memorials 11.1.1 Educational institutions 11.1.2 Places and monuments 11.1.3 Currency and postage 12 See also 13 References 13.1 Notes 13.2 Citations 13.3 Bibliography 13.3.1 Print sources 13.3.2 Primary sources 13.3.3 Online sources 14 Further reading 15 External links Early life (1732–1752) Further information: Washington family and British America

Ferry Farm, the residence of the Washington family on the Rappahannock River The Washington family was a wealthy Virginia planter family that had made its fortune through land speculation and the cultivation of tobacco.[14] Washington's great-grandfather John Washington emigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, Northamptonshire, England, to the English colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River. George Washington was born on February 22, 1732, at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County, Virginia,[15] and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington.[16] His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had four additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler.[17] The family moved to Little Hunting Creek in 1735. In 1738, they moved to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia on the Rappahannock River. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited Ferry Farm and ten slaves; his older half-brother Lawrence inherited Little Hunting Creek and renamed it Mount Vernon.[18]

Washington did not have the formal education his elder brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but did attend the Lower Church School in Hartfield. He learned mathematics, trigonometry, and land surveying and became a talented draftsman and map-maker. By early adulthood he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision";[19] however, his writing displayed little wit or humor. In pursuit of admiration, status, and power, he tended to attribute his shortcomings and failures to someone else's ineffectuality.[20]

Washington often visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, and Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.[21] He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of William & Mary.[c] Even though Washington had not served the customary apprenticeship, Fairfax appointed him surveyor of Culpeper County, Virginia, and he appeared in Culpeper County to take his oath of office July 20, 1749.[22] He subsequently familiarized himself with the frontier region, and though he resigned from the job in 1750, he continued to do surveys west of the Blue Ridge Mountains.[23] By 1752 he had bought almost 1,500 acres (600 ha) in the Valley and owned 2,315 acres (937 ha).[24]

In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis.[25] Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him and left his face slightly scarred.[26] Lawrence died in 1752, and Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow; he inherited it outright after her death in 1761.[27]

Colonial military career (1752–1758) Lawrence Washington's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired his half-brother George to seek a commission. Virginia's lieutenant governor, Robert Dinwiddie, appointed George Washington as a major and commander of one of the four militia districts. The British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley. While the British were constructing forts along the Ohio River, the French were doing the same—constructing forts between the Ohio River and Lake Erie.[28]

In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy. He had sent George to demand French forces to vacate land that was being claimed by the British.[d] Washington was also appointed to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy, and to gather further intelligence about the French forces.[30] Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison, and other Iroquois chiefs, at Logstown, and gathered information about the numbers and locations of the French forts, as well as intelligence concerning individuals taken prisoner by the French. Washington was given the nickname Conotocaurius (town destroyer or devourer of villages) by Tanacharison. The nickname had previously been given to his great-grandfather John Washington in the late seventeenth century by the Susquehannock.[31][32]

Washington's party reached the Ohio River in November 1753, and were intercepted by a French patrol. The party was escorted to Fort Le Boeuf, where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to the French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, as well as food and extra winter clothing for his party's journey back to Virginia.[33] Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days, in difficult winter conditions, achieving a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and in London.[34]

French and Indian War Main articles: French and Indian War, George Washington in the French and Indian War, and Seven Years' War In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia Regiment, with orders to confront French forces at the Forks of the Ohio.[35] Washington set out for the Forks with half the regiment in April and soon learned a French force of 1,000 had begun construction of Fort Duquesne there. In May, having set up a defensive position at Great Meadows, he learned that the French had made camp seven miles (11 km) away; he decided to take the offensive.[36]

Night scene depicting Washington at center, standing among officers and Indians, around a lamp, holding a war council Lieutenant Colonel Washington holds night council at Fort Necessity The French detachment proved to be only about fifty men, so Washington advanced on May 28 with a small force of Virginians and Indian allies to ambush them.[37][e] What took place, known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen or the "Jumonville affair", was disputed, and French forces were killed outright with muskets and hatchets. French commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, who carried a diplomatic message for the British to evacuate, was killed. French forces found Jumonville and some of his men dead and scalped and assumed Washington was responsible.[39] Washington blamed his translator for not communicating the French intentions.[40] Dinwiddie congratulated Washington for his victory over the French.[41] This incident ignited the French and Indian War, which later became part of the larger Seven Years' War.[42]

The full Virginia Regiment joined Washington at Fort Necessity the following month with news that he had been promoted to command of the regiment and colonel upon the regimental commander's death. The regiment was reinforced by an independent company of a hundred South Carolinians led by Captain James Mackay, whose royal commission outranked that of Washington, and a conflict of command ensued. On July 3, a French force attacked with 900 men, and the ensuing battle ended in Washington's surrender.[43] In the aftermath, Colonel James Innes took command of intercolonial forces, the Virginia Regiment was divided, and Washington was offered a captaincy which he refused, with the resignation of his commission.[44]

Washington on horseback in the middle of a battle scene with other soldiers Washington the Soldier: Lieutenant Colonel Washington on horseback during the Battle of the Monongahela (oil, Reǵnier, 1834) In 1755, Washington served voluntarily as an aide to General Edward Braddock, who led a British expedition to expel the French from Fort Duquesne and the Ohio Country.[45] On Washington's recommendation, Braddock split the army into one main column and a lightly equipped "flying column".[46] Suffering from a severe case of dysentery, Washington was left behind, and when he rejoined Braddock at Monongahela the French and their Indian allies ambushed the divided army. Two-thirds of the British force became casualties, including the mortally wounded Braddock. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage, Washington, still very ill, rallied the survivors and formed a rear guard, allowing the remnants of the force to disengage and retreat.[47] During the engagement, he had two horses shot from under him, and his hat and coat were bullet-pierced.[48] His conduct under fire redeemed his reputation among critics of his command in the Battle of Fort Necessity,[49] but he was not included by the succeeding commander (Colonel Thomas Dunbar) in planning subsequent operations.[50]

The Virginia Regiment was reconstituted in August 1755, and Dinwiddie appointed Washington its commander, again with the rank of colonel. Washington clashed over seniority almost immediately, this time with John Dagworthy, another captain of superior royal rank, who commanded a detachment of Marylanders at the regiment's headquarters in Fort Cumberland.[51] Washington, impatient for an offensive against Fort Duquesne, was convinced Braddock would have granted him a royal commission and pressed his case in February 1756 with Braddock's successor, William Shirley, and again in January 1757 with Shirley's successor, Lord Loudoun. Shirley ruled in Washington's favor only in the matter of Dagworthy; Loudoun humiliated Washington, refused him a royal commission and agreed only to relieve him of the responsibility of manning Fort Cumberland.[52]

In 1758, the Virginia Regiment was assigned to the British Forbes Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne.[53][f] Washington disagreed with General John Forbes' tactics and chosen route.[55] Forbes nevertheless made Washington a brevet brigadier general and gave him command of one of the three brigades that would assault the fort. The French abandoned the fort and the valley before the assault was launched; Washington saw only a friendly fire incident which left 14 dead and 26 injured. The war lasted another four years, and Washington resigned his commission and returned to Mount Vernon.[56]

Under Washington, the Virginia Regiment had defended 300 miles (480 km) of frontier against twenty Indian attacks in ten months.[57] He increased the professionalism of the regiment as it increased from 300 to 1,000 men, and Virginia's frontier population suffered less than other colonies. Some historians have said this was Washington's "only unqualified success" during the war.[58] Though he failed to realize a royal commission, he did gain self-confidence, leadership skills, and invaluable knowledge of British military tactics. The destructive competition Washington witnessed among colonial politicians fostered his later support of a strong central government.[59]

Marriage, civilian, and political life (1755–1775) Painting of Washington, by Charles Wilson Peale, standing in a formal pose, in a colonel's uniform, right hand inserted in shirt. Colonel George Washington, by Charles Willson Peale, 1772 On January 6, 1759, Washington, at age 26, married Martha Dandridge Custis, the 27-year-old widow of wealthy plantation owner Daniel Parke Custis. The marriage took place at Martha's estate; she was intelligent, gracious, and experienced in managing a planter's estate, and the couple created a happy marriage.[60] They raised John Parke Custis (Jacky) and Martha Parke (Patsy) Custis, children from her previous marriage, and later Jacky's children Eleanor Parke Custis (Nelly) and George Washington Parke Custis (Washy). Washington's 1751 bout with smallpox is thought to have rendered him sterile, though it is equally likely that "Martha may have sustained injury during the birth of Patsy, her final child, making additional births impossible."[61] The couple lamented not having any children together.[62][g] They moved to Mount Vernon, near Alexandria, where he took up life as a planter of tobacco and wheat and emerged as a political figure.[65]

The marriage gave Washington control over Martha's one-third dower interest in the 18,000-acre (7,300 ha) Custis estate, and he managed the remaining two-thirds for Martha's children; the estate also included 84 slaves. He became one of Virginia's wealthiest men, which increased his social standing.[66]

At Washington's urging, Governor Lord Botetourt fulfilled Dinwiddie's 1754 promise of land bounties to all-volunteer militia during the French and Indian War.[67] In late 1770, Washington inspected the lands in the Ohio and Great Kanawha regions, and he engaged surveyor William Crawford to subdivide it. Crawford allotted 23,200 acres (9,400 ha) to Washington; Washington told the veterans that their land was hilly and unsuitable for farming, and he agreed to purchase 20,147 acres (8,153 ha), leaving some feeling they had been duped.[68] He also doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (2,600 ha) and increased its slave population to more than a hundred by 1775.[69]

Washington's political activities included supporting the candidacy of his friend George William Fairfax in his 1755 bid to represent the region in the Virginia House of Burgesses. This support led to a dispute which resulted in a physical altercation between Washington and another Virginia planter, William Payne. Washington defused the situation, including ordering officers from the Virginia Regiment to stand down. Washington apologized to Payne the following day at a tavern. Payne had been expecting to be challenged to a duel.[70][71][72]

As a respected military hero and large landowner, Washington held local offices and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, representing Frederick County in the House of Burgesses for seven years beginning in 1758.[69] He plied the voters with beer, brandy, and other beverages, although he was absent while serving on the Forbes Expedition.[73] He won the election with roughly 40 percent of the vote, defeating three other candidates with the help of several local supporters. He rarely spoke in his early legislative career, but he became a prominent critic of Britain's taxation policy and mercantilist policies towards the American colonies starting in the 1760s.[74]

A mezzotint of Martha Washington, standing, wearing a formal gown, based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston Martha Washington based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston By occupation, Washington was a planter, and he imported luxuries and other goods from England, paying for them by exporting tobacco.[75] His profligate spending combined with low tobacco prices left him £1,800 in debt by 1764, prompting him to diversify his holdings.[76] In 1765, because of erosion and other soil problems, he changed Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat and expanded operations to include corn flour milling and fishing.[77] Washington also took time for leisure with fox hunting, fishing, dances, theater, cards, backgammon, and billiards.[78]

Washington soon was counted among the political and social elite in Virginia. From 1768 to 1775, he invited some 2,000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those whom he considered "people of rank". He became more politically active in 1769, presenting legislation in the Virginia Assembly to establish an embargo on goods from Great Britain.[79]

Washington's step-daughter Patsy Custis suffered from epileptic attacks from age 12, and she died in his arms in 1773. The following day, he wrote to Burwell Bassett: "It is easier to conceive, than to describe, the distress of this Family".[80] He canceled all business activity and remained with Martha every night for three months.[81]

Opposition to British Parliament and Crown Further information: American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, and George Washington in the American Revolution Washington played a central role before and during the American Revolution. His disdain for the British military had begun when he was passed over for promotion into the Regular Army. Opposed to taxes imposed by the British Parliament on the Colonies without proper representation,[82] he and other colonists were also angered by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which banned American settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains and protected the British fur trade.[83]

Washington believed the Stamp Act of 1765 was an "Act of Oppression", and he celebrated its repeal the following year.[h] In March 1766, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act asserting that Parliamentary law superseded colonial law.[85] In the late 1760s, the interference of the British Crown in American lucrative western land speculation spurred on the American Revolution.[86] Washington himself was a prosperous land speculator, and in 1767, he encouraged "adventures" to acquire backcountry western lands.[86] Washington helped lead widespread protests against the Townshend Acts passed by Parliament in 1767, and he introduced a proposal in May 1769 drafted by George Mason which called Virginians to boycott British goods; the Acts were mostly repealed in 1770.[87]

Parliament sought to punish Massachusetts colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party in 1774 by passing the Coercive Acts, which Washington referred to as "an invasion of our rights and privileges".[88] He said Americans must not submit to acts of tyranny since "custom and use shall make us as tame and abject slaves, as the blacks we rule over with such arbitrary sway".[89] That July, he and George Mason drafted a list of resolutions for the Fairfax County committee which Washington chaired, and the committee adopted the Fairfax Resolves calling for a Continental Congress.[90] On August 1, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress, September 5 to October 26, 1774, which he also attended.[91] As tensions rose in 1774, he helped train county militias in Virginia and organized enforcement of the Continental Association boycott of British goods instituted by the Congress.[92]

The American Revolutionary War began on April 19, 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Siege of Boston.[93] The colonists were divided over breaking away from British rule and split into two factions: Patriots who rejected British rule, and Loyalists who desired to remain subject to the King.[94] General Thomas Gage was commander of British forces in America at the beginning of the war.[95] Upon hearing the shocking news of the onset of war, Washington was "sobered and dismayed",[96] and he hastily departed Mount Vernon on May 4, 1775, to join the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia.[97]

Commander in chief (1775–1783) See also: American Revolutionary War § American strategy Further information: Military career of George Washington Formal painting of General George Washington, standing in uniform, as commander of the Continental Army General Washington, Commander of the Continental Army by Charles Willson Peale (1776) Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775, and Samuel and John Adams nominated Washington to become its commander-in-chief. Washington was chosen over John Hancock because of his military experience and the belief that a Virginian would better unite the colonies. He was considered an incisive leader who kept his "ambition in check".[98] He was unanimously elected commander in chief by Congress the next day.[99]

Washington appeared before Congress in uniform and gave an acceptance speech on June 16, declining a salary—though he was later reimbursed expenses. He was commissioned on June 19 and was roundly praised by Congressional delegates, including John Adams, who proclaimed that he was the man best suited to lead and unite the colonies.[100][101] Congress appointed Washington "General & Commander in chief of the army of the United Colonies and of all the forces raised or to be raised by them", and instructed him to take charge of the siege of Boston on June 22, 1775.[102]

Congress chose his primary staff officers, including Major General Artemas Ward, Adjutant General Horatio Gates, Major General Charles Lee, Major General Philip Schuyler, Major General Nathanael Greene, Colonel Henry Knox, and Colonel Alexander Hamilton.[103] Washington was impressed by Colonel Benedict Arnold and gave him responsibility for launching an invasion of Canada. He also engaged French and Indian War compatriot Brigadier General Daniel Morgan. Henry Knox impressed Adams with ordnance knowledge, and Washington promoted him to colonel and chief of artillery.[104]

At the start of the war, Washington opposed the recruiting of blacks, both free and enslaved, into the Continental Army. After his appointment, Washington banned their enlistment. The British saw an opportunity to divide the colonies, and the colonial governor of Virginia issued a proclamation, which promised freedom to slaves if they joined the British.[105] Desperate for manpower by late 1777, Washington relented and overturned his ban.[106] By the end of the war, around one-tenth of Washington's army were blacks.[107]

After the war Washington became the target of accusations made by General Lee involving his alleged questionable conduct as Commander in Chief during the war that were published by patriot-printer William Goddard. Goddard in a letter of May 30, 1785, had informed Washington of Lee's request to publish his account and assured him that he "...took the liberty to suppress such expressions as appeared to be the ebullitions of a disappointed & irritated mind ...". Washington replied, telling Goddard to print what he saw fit, and to let "... the impartial & dispassionate world," draw their own conclusions.[108][109]

Siege of Boston Main article: Siege of Boston

Washington taking command of the Continental Army, just before the siege Early in 1775, in response to the growing rebellious movement, London sent British troops, commanded by General Thomas Gage, to occupy Boston. They set up fortifications about the city, making it impervious to attack. Various local militias surrounded the city and effectively trapped the British, resulting in a standoff.[110]

As Washington headed for Boston, word of his march preceded him, and he was greeted everywhere; gradually, he became a symbol of the Patriot cause.[111][i] Upon arrival on July 2, 1775, two weeks after the Patriot defeat at nearby Bunker Hill, he set up his Cambridge, Massachusetts headquarters and inspected the new army there, only to find an undisciplined and badly outfitted militia.[112] After consultation, he initiated Benjamin Franklin's suggested reforms—drilling the soldiers and imposing strict discipline, floggings, and incarceration.[113] Washington ordered his officers to identify the skills of recruits to ensure military effectiveness, while removing incompetent officers.[114] He petitioned Gage, his former superior, to release captured Patriot officers from prison and treat them humanely.[115] In October 1775, King George III declared that the colonies were in open rebellion and relieved General Gage of command for incompetence, replacing him with General William Howe.[116]

In June 1775, Congress ordered an invasion of Canada. It was led by Benedict Arnold, who, despite Washington's strong objection, drew volunteers from the latter's force during the Siege of Boston. The move on Quebec failed, with the American forces being reduced to less than half and forced to retreat.[117]

The Continental Army, further diminished by expiring short-term enlistments, and by January 1776 reduced by half to 9,600 men, had to be supplemented with the militia, and was joined by Knox with heavy artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga.[118] When the Charles River froze over, Washington was eager to cross and storm Boston, but General Gates and others were opposed to untrained militia striking well-garrisoned fortifications. Washington reluctantly agreed to secure the Dorchester Heights, 100 feet above Boston, in an attempt to force the British out of the city.[119] On March 9, under cover of darkness, Washington's troops brought up Knox's big guns and bombarded British ships in Boston harbor. On March 17, 9,000 British troops and Loyalists began a chaotic ten-day evacuation of Boston aboard 120 ships. Soon after, Washington entered the city with 500 men, with explicit orders not to plunder the city. He ordered vaccinations against smallpox to great effect, as he did later in Morristown, New Jersey.[120] He refrained from exerting military authority in Boston, leaving civilian matters in the hands of local authorities.[121][j]

Battle of Long Island Main article: Battle of Long Island Painting by Alonzo Chappel, 1858, showing the frantic battle scene of the Battle of Long Island, with smoke in the background Battle of Long Island Alonzo Chappel (1858) Washington then proceeded to New York City, arriving on April 13, 1776, and began constructing fortifications to thwart the expected British attack. He ordered his occupying forces to treat civilians and their property with respect, to avoid the abuses which Bostonian citizens suffered at the hands of British troops during their occupation.[123] A plot to assassinate or capture him was discovered and thwarted, resulting in the arrest of 98 people involved or complicit (56 of which were from Long Island (Kings (Brooklyn) and Queens counties), including the Loyalist Mayor of New York David Mathews.[124] Washington's bodyguard, Thomas Hickey, was hanged for mutiny and sedition.[125] General Howe transported his resupplied army, with the British fleet, from Halifax to New York, knowing the city was key to securing the continent. George Germain, who ran the British war effort in England, believed it could be won with one "decisive blow".[126] The British forces, including more than a hundred ships and thousands of troops, began arriving on Staten Island on July 2 to lay siege to the city.[127] After the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, Washington informed his troops in his general orders of July 9 that Congress had declared the united colonies to be "free and independent states".[128]

Howe's troop strength totaled 32,000 regulars and Hessians auxiliaries, and Washington's consisted of 23,000, mostly raw recruits and militia.[129] In August, Howe landed 20,000 troops at Gravesend, Brooklyn, and approached Washington's fortifications, as George III proclaimed the rebellious American colonists to be traitors.[130] Washington, opposing his generals, chose to fight, based upon inaccurate information that Howe's army had only 8,000-plus troops.[131] In the Battle of Long Island, Howe assaulted Washington's flank and inflicted 1,500 Patriot casualties, the British suffering 400.[132] Washington retreated, instructing General William Heath to acquisition river craft in the area. On August 30, General William Alexander held off the British and gave cover while the army crossed the East River under darkness to Manhattan Island without loss of life or materiel, although Alexander was captured.[133]

Howe, emboldened by his Long Island victory, dispatched Washington as "George Washington, Esq." in futility to negotiate peace. Washington declined, demanding to be addressed with diplomatic protocol, as general and fellow belligerent, not as a "rebel", lest his men are hanged as such if captured.[134] The Royal Navy bombarded the unstable earthworks on lower Manhattan Island.[135] Washington, with misgivings, heeded the advice of Generals Greene and Putnam to defend Fort Washington. They were unable to hold it, and Washington abandoned it despite General Lee's objections, as his army retired north to the White Plains.[136] Howe's pursuit forced Washington to retreat across the Hudson River to Fort Lee to avoid encirclement. Howe landed his troops on Manhattan in November and captured Fort Washington, inflicting high casualties on the Americans. Washington was responsible for delaying the retreat, though he blamed Congress and General Greene. Loyalists in New York considered Howe a liberator and spread a rumor that Washington had set fire to the city.[137] Patriot morale reached its lowest when Lee was captured.[138] Now reduced to 5,400 troops, Washington's army retreated through New Jersey, and Howe broke off pursuit, delaying his advance on Philadelphia, and set up winter quarters in New York.[139]

Crossing the Delaware, Trenton, and Princeton Main articles: George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, Battle of Trenton, Battle of the Assunpink Creek, and Battle of Princeton Famous 1851 painting by Emanuel Leutze, depicting Washington, standing in a boat with his troops, crossing the icy Delaware River, with soldiers pushing away chunks of ice Washington Crossing the Delaware, Emanuel Leutze (1851)[k] Washington crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, where Lee's replacement John Sullivan joined him with 2,000 more troops.[141] The future of the Continental Army was in doubt for lack of supplies, a harsh winter, expiring enlistments, and desertions. Washington was disappointed that many New Jersey residents were Loyalists or skeptical about the prospect of independence.[142]

Howe split up his British Army and posted a Hessian garrison at Trenton to hold western New Jersey and the east shore of the Delaware,[143] but the army appeared complacent, and Washington and his generals devised a surprise attack on the Hessians at Trenton, which he codenamed "Victory or Death".[144] The army was to cross the Delaware River to Trenton in three divisions: one led by Washington (2,400 troops), another by General James Ewing (700), and the third by Colonel John Cadwalader (1,500). The force was to then split, with Washington taking the Pennington Road and General Sullivan traveling south on the river's edge.[145]


The Passage of the Delaware, by Thomas Sully, 1819 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Washington first ordered a 60-mile search for Durham boats to transport his army, and he ordered the destruction of vessels that could be used by the British.[146] Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night,[147] December 25, 1776, while he personally risked capture staking out the Jersey shoreline. His men followed across the ice-obstructed river in sleet and snow from McConkey's Ferry, with 40 men per vessel. The wind churned up the waters, and they were pelted with hail, but by 3:00 a.m. on December 26, they made it across with no losses.[148] Henry Knox was delayed, managing frightened horses and about 18 field guns on flat-bottomed ferries. Cadwalader and Ewing failed to cross due to the ice and heavy currents, and awaiting Washington doubted his planned attack on Trenton. Once Knox arrived, Washington proceeded to Trenton to take only his troops against the Hessians, rather than risk being spotted returning his army to Pennsylvania.[149]

The troops spotted Hessian positions a mile from Trenton, so Washington split his force into two columns, rallying his men: "Soldiers keep by your officers. For God's sake, keep by your officers." The two columns were separated at the Birmingham crossroads. General Nathanael Greene's column took the upper Ferry Road, led by Washington, and General John Sullivan's column advanced on River Road. (See map.)[150] The Americans marched in sleet and snowfall. Many were shoeless with bloodied feet, and two died of exposure. At sunrise, Washington led them in a surprise attack on the Hessians, aided by Major General Knox and artillery. The Hessians had 22 killed (including Colonel Johann Rall), 83 wounded, and 850 captured with supplies.[151]

Painting showing Washington on horseback, accepting the surrender of Hessian troops after the Battle at Trenton The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776 by John Trumbull Washington retreated across Delaware River to Pennsylvania and returned to New Jersey on January 3, 1777, launching an attack on British regulars at Princeton, with 40 Americans killed or wounded and 273 British killed or captured.[152] American Generals Hugh Mercer and John Cadwalader were being driven back by the British when Mercer was mortally wounded, then Washington arrived and led the men in a counterattack which advanced to within 30 yards (27 m) of the British line.[153]

Some British troops retreated after a brief stand, while others took refuge in Nassau Hall, which became the target of Colonel Alexander Hamilton's cannons. Washington's troops charged, the British surrendered in less than an hour, and 194 soldiers laid down their arms.[154] Howe retreated to New York City where his army remained inactive until early the next year.[155] Washington's depleted Continental Army took up winter headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey while disrupting British supply lines and expelling them from parts of New Jersey. Washington later said the British could have successfully counterattacked his encampment before his troops were dug in.[156] The victories at Trenton and Princeton by Washington revived Patriot morale and changed the course of the war. [147]

The British still controlled New York, and many Patriot soldiers did not re-enlist or deserted after the harsh winter campaign. Congress instituted greater rewards for re-enlisting and punishments for desertion to effect greater troop numbers.[157] Strategically, Washington's victories were pivotal for the Revolution and quashed the British strategy of showing overwhelming force followed by offering generous terms.[158] In February 1777, word reached London of the American victories at Trenton and Princeton, and the British realized the Patriots were in a position to demand unconditional independence.[159]

Brandywine, Germantown, and Saratoga Main articles: Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Germantown, and Battle of Saratoga In July 1777, British General John Burgoyne led the Saratoga campaign south from Quebec through Lake Champlain and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga intending to divide New England, including control of the Hudson River. However, General Howe in British-occupied New York blundered, taking his army south to Philadelphia rather than up the Hudson River to join Burgoyne near Albany.[160] Meanwhile, Washington and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe and were shocked to learn of Burgoyne's progress in upstate New York, where the Patriots were led by General Philip Schuyler and successor Horatio Gates. Washington's army of less experienced men were defeated in the pitched battles at Philadelphia.[161]

Howe outmaneuvered Washington at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, and marched unopposed into the nation's capital at Philadelphia. A Patriot attack failed against the British at Germantown in October. Major General Thomas Conway prompted some members of Congress (referred to as the Conway Cabal) to consider removing Washington from command because of the losses incurred at Philadelphia. Washington's supporters resisted, and the matter was finally dropped after much deliberation.[162] Once the plot was exposed, Conway wrote an apology to Washington, resigned, and returned to France.[163]

Washington was concerned with Howe's movements during the Saratoga campaign to the north, and he was also aware that Burgoyne was moving south toward Saratoga from Quebec. Washington took some risks to support Gates' army, sending reinforcements north with Generals Benedict Arnold, his most aggressive field commander, and Benjamin Lincoln. On October 7, 1777, Burgoyne tried to take Bemis Heights but was isolated from support by Howe. He was forced to retreat to Saratoga and ultimately surrendered after the Battles of Saratoga. As Washington suspected, Gates' victory emboldened his critics.[164] Biographer John Alden maintains, "It was inevitable that the defeats of Washington's forces and the concurrent victory of the forces in upper New York should be compared." The admiration for Washington was waning, including little credit from John Adams.[165] British commander Howe resigned in May 1778, left America forever, and was replaced by Sir Henry Clinton.[166]

Valley Forge and Monmouth Main articles: Valley Forge and Battle of Monmouth Painting showing Washington and Lafayette on horseback in a winter setting, at Valley Forge Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge, by John Ward Dunsmore (1907) Washington's army of 11,000 went into winter quarters at Valley Forge north of Philadelphia in December 1777. They suffered between 2,000 and 3,000 deaths in the extreme cold over six months, mostly from disease and lack of food, clothing, and shelter.[167] Meanwhile, the British were comfortably quartered in Philadelphia, paying for supplies in pounds sterling, while Washington struggled with a devalued American paper currency. The woodlands were soon exhausted of game, and by February, lowered morale and increased desertions ensued.[168]

Washington made repeated petitions to the Continental Congress for provisions. He received a congressional delegation to check the Army's conditions and expressed the urgency of the situation, proclaiming: "Something must be done. Important alterations must be made." He recommended that Congress expedite supplies, and Congress agreed to strengthen and fund the army's supply lines by reorganizing the commissary department. By late February, supplies began arriving.[122]


Washington Rallying the Troops at Monmouth, Emanuel Leutze (1851–1854) Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben's incessant drilling soon transformed Washington's recruits into a disciplined fighting force,[169] and the revitalized army emerged from Valley Forge early the following year.[170] Washington promoted Von Steuben to Major General and made him chief of staff.[171]

In early 1778, the French responded to Burgoyne's defeat and entered into a Treaty of Alliance with the Americans. The Continental Congress ratified the treaty in May, which amounted to a French declaration of war against Britain.[172]

The British evacuated Philadelphia for New York that June and Washington summoned a war council of American and French Generals. He chose a partial attack on the retreating British at the Battle of Monmouth; the British were commanded by Howe's successor General Henry Clinton. Generals Charles Lee and Lafayette moved with 4,000 men, without Washington's knowledge, and bungled their first attack on June 28. Washington relieved Lee and achieved a draw after an expansive battle. At nightfall, the British continued their retreat to New York, and Washington moved his army outside the city.[173] Monmouth was Washington's last battle in the North; he valued the safety of his army more than towns with little value to the British.[174]

West Point espionage Main articles: West Point and Military career of Benedict Arnold, 1777–1779 Washington became "America's first spymaster" by designing an espionage system against the British.[175] In 1778, Major Benjamin Tallmadge formed the Culper Ring at Washington's direction to covertly collect information about the British in New York.[176] Washington had disregarded incidents of disloyalty by Benedict Arnold, who had distinguished himself in many battles.[177]

During mid-1780, Arnold began supplying British spymaster John André with sensitive information intended to compromise Washington and capture West Point, a key American defensive position on the Hudson River.[178] Historians[who?] have noted as possible reasons for Arnold's treachery his anger at losing promotions to junior officers, or repeated slights[clarification needed] from Congress. He was also deeply in debt, profiteering from the war, and disappointed by Washington's lack of support during his eventual court-martial.[179]


An engraving of Washington, likely made after his tenure in the army. Arnold repeatedly asked for command of West Point, and Washington finally agreed in August.[180] Arnold met André on September 21, giving him plans to take over the garrison.[181] Militia forces captured André and discovered the plans, but Arnold escaped to New York.[182] Washington recalled the commanders positioned under Arnold at key points around the fort to prevent any complicity, but he did not suspect Arnold's wife Peggy. Washington assumed personal command at West Point and reorganized its defenses.[183] André's trial for espionage ended in a death sentence, and Washington offered to return him to the British in exchange for Arnold, but Clinton refused. André was hanged on October 2, 1780, despite his last request being to face a firing squad, to deter other spies.[184]

Southern theater and Yorktown Main article: Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War Painting showing French King Louis XVI, standing, wearing formal King's robe French King Louis XVI allied with Washington and Patriot American colonists In late 1778, General Clinton shipped 3,000 troops from New York to Georgia and launched a Southern invasion against Savannah, reinforced by 2,000 British and Loyalist troops. They repelled an attack by Patriots and French naval forces, which bolstered the British war effort.[185]

In mid-1779, Washington attacked Iroquois warriors of the Six Nations to force Britain's Indian allies out of New York, from which they had assaulted New England towns.[186] In response, Indian warriors joined with Loyalist rangers led by Walter Butler and killed more than 200 frontiersmen in June, laying waste to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania.[187] Washington retaliated by ordering General John Sullivan to lead an expedition to effect "the total destruction and devastation" of Iroquois villages and take their women and children hostage. Those who managed to escape fled to Canada.[188]

Washington's troops went into quarters at Morristown, New Jersey during the winter of 1779–1780 and suffered their worst winter of the war, with temperatures well below freezing. New York Harbor was frozen over, snow and ice covered the ground for weeks, and the troops again lacked provisions.[189]

Clinton assembled 12,500 troops and attacked Charlestown, South Carolina in January 1780, defeating General Benjamin Lincoln who had only 5,100 Continental troops.[190] The British went on to occupy the South Carolina Piedmont in June, with no Patriot resistance. Clinton returned to New York and left 8,000 troops commanded by General Charles Cornwallis.[191] Congress replaced Lincoln with Horatio Gates; he failed in South Carolina and was replaced by Washington's choice of Nathaniel Greene, but the British already had the South in their grasp. Washington was reinvigorated, however, when Lafayette returned from France with more ships, men, and supplies,[192] and 5,000 veteran French troops led by Marshal Rochambeau arrived at Newport, Rhode Island in July 1780.[193] French naval forces then landed, led by Admiral Grasse, and Washington encouraged Rochambeau to move his fleet south to launch a joint land and naval attack on Arnold's troops.[194]

Washington's army went into winter quarters at New Windsor, New York in December 1780, and Washington urged Congress and state officials to expedite provisions in hopes that the army would not "continue to struggle under the same difficulties they have hitherto endured".[195] On March 1, 1781, Congress ratified the Articles of Confederation, but the government that took effect on March 2 did not have the power to levy taxes, and it loosely held the states together.[196]

General Clinton sent Benedict Arnold, now a British Brigadier General with 1,700 troops, to Virginia to capture Portsmouth and conduct raids on Patriot forces from there; Washington responded by sending Lafayette south to counter Arnold's efforts.[197] Washington initially hoped to bring the fight to New York, drawing off British forces from Virginia and ending the war there, but Rochambeau advised Grasse that Cornwallis in Virginia was the better target. Grasse's fleet arrived off the Virginia coast, and Washington saw the advantage. He made a feint towards Clinton in New York, then headed south to Virginia.[198]

Generals Washington and Rochambeau, standing in front of HQ tent, giving last orders before the attack on Yorktown Siege of Yorktown, Generals Washington and Rochambeau give last orders before the attack The Siege of Yorktown was a decisive Allied victory by the combined forces of the Continental Army commanded by General Washington, the French Army commanded by the General Comte de Rochambeau, and the French Navy commanded by Admiral de Grasse, in the defeat of Cornwallis' British forces. On August 19, the march to Yorktown led by Washington and Rochambeau began, which is known now as the "celebrated march".[199] Washington was in command of an army of 7,800 Frenchmen, 3,100 militia, and 8,000 Continentals. Not well experienced in siege warfare, Washington often referred to the judgment of General Rochambeau and used his advice about how to proceed; however, Rochambeau never challenged Washington's authority as the battle's commanding officer.[200]

By late September, Patriot-French forces surrounded Yorktown, trapped the British army, and prevented British reinforcements from Clinton in the North, while the French navy emerged victorious at the Battle of the Chesapeake. The final American offensive was begun with a shot fired by Washington.[201] The siege ended with a British surrender on October 19, 1781; over 7,000 British soldiers were made prisoners of war, in the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War.[202] Washington negotiated the terms of surrender for two days, and the official signing ceremony took place on October 19; Cornwallis claimed illness and was absent, sending General Charles O'Hara as his proxy.[203] As a gesture of goodwill, Washington held a dinner for the American, French, and British generals, all of whom fraternized on friendly terms and identified with one another as members of the same professional military caste.[204]

After the surrender at Yorktown, a situation developed that threatened relations between the newly independent America and Britain.[205] Following a series of retributive executions between Patriots and Loyalists, Washington, on May 18, 1782, wrote in a letter to General Moses Hazen[206] that a British captain would be executed in retaliation for the execution of Joshua Huddy, a popular Patriot leader, who was hanged at the direction of the Loyalist Richard Lippincott. Washington wanted Lippincott himself to be executed but was rebuffed.[207] Subsequently, Charles Asgill was chosen instead, by a drawing of lots from a hat. This was a violation of the 14th article of the Yorktown Articles of Capitulation, which protected prisoners of war from acts of retaliation.[206][208] Later, Washington's feelings on matters changed and in a letter of November 13, 1782, to Asgill, he acknowledged Asgill's letter and situation, expressing his desire not to see any harm come to him.[209] After much consideration between the Continental Congress, Alexander Hamilton, Washington, and appeals from the French Crown, Asgill was finally released,[210] where Washington issued Asgill a pass that allowed his passage to New York.[211][206]

Demobilization and resignation Painting by John Trumbull, depicting General Washington, standing in Maryland State House hall, surrounded by statesmen and others, resigning his commission General George Washington Resigning His Commission, by John Trumbull, 1824 As peace negotiations started, the British gradually evacuated troops from Savannah, Charlestown, and New York by 1783, and the French army and navy likewise departed.[212] The American treasury was empty, unpaid, and mutinous soldiers forced the adjournment of Congress, and Washington dispelled unrest by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracy in March 1783; Congress promised officers a five-year bonus.[213] Washington submitted an account of $450,000 in expenses which he had advanced to the army. The account was settled, though it was allegedly vague about large sums and included expenses his wife had incurred through visits to his headquarters.[214]

Washington resigned as commander-in-chief once the Treaty of Paris was signed, and he planned to retire to Mount Vernon. The treaty was ratified in April 1783, and Hamilton's Congressional committee adapted the army for peacetime. Washington gave the Army's perspective to the committee in his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment.[215] The Treaty was signed on September 3, 1783, and Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States. Washington then disbanded his army, giving an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers on November 2.[216] On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and Governor George Clinton took possession.[217]

Washington advised Congress in August 1783 to keep a standing army, create a "national militia" of separate state units, and establish a navy and a national military academy. He circulated his "Farewell" orders that discharged his troops, whom he called "one patriotic band of brothers". Before his return to Mount Vernon, he oversaw the evacuation of British forces in New York and was greeted by parades and celebrations, where he announced that Colonel Henry Knox had been promoted commander-in-chief.[218]

After leading the Continental Army for 8½ years, Washington bade farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern in December 1783 and resigned his commission days later, refuting Loyalist predictions that he would not relinquish his military command.[219] In a final appearance in uniform, he gave a statement to the Congress: "I consider it an indispensable duty to close this last solemn act of my official life, by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them, to his holy keeping."[220] Washington's resignation was acclaimed at home and abroad and showed a skeptical world that the new republic would not degenerate into chaos.[221][l] The same month, Washington was appointed president-general of the Society of the Cincinnati, a hereditary fraternity, and he served for the remainder of his life.[223][m]

Early republic (1783–1789) Further information: Confederation Period and Articles of Confederation Return to Mount Vernon I am not only retired from all public employments but I am retiring within myself, and shall be able to view the solitary walk and tread the paths of private life with heartfelt satisfaction ... I will move gently down the stream of life, until I sleep with my fathers. George Washington Letter to Lafayette February 1, 1784[225] Washington was longing to return home after spending just ten days at Mount Vernon out of 8+1⁄2 years of war. He arrived on Christmas Eve, delighted to be "free of the bustle of a camp and the busy scenes of public life".[226] He was a celebrity and was fêted during a visit to his mother at Fredericksburg in February 1784, and he received a constant stream of visitors wishing to pay their respects to him at Mount Vernon.[227]

Washington reactivated his interests in the Great Dismal Swamp and Potomac canal projects begun before the war, though neither paid him any dividends, and he undertook a 34-day, 680-mile (1090 km) trip to check on his land holdings in the Ohio Country.[228] He oversaw the completion of the remodeling work at Mount Vernon, which transformed his residence into the mansion that survives to this day—although his financial situation was not strong. Creditors paid him in depreciated wartime currency, and he owed significant amounts in taxes and wages. Mount Vernon had made no profit during his absence, and he saw persistently poor crop yields due to pestilence and poor weather. His estate recorded its eleventh year running at a deficit in 1787, and there was little prospect of improvement.[229] Washington undertook a new landscaping plan and succeeded in cultivating a range of fast-growing trees and shrubs that were native to North America.[230] He also began breeding mules after having been gifted a Spanish jack by King Charles III of Spain in 1784. There were few mules in the United States at that time, and he believed that properly bred mules would revolutionize agriculture and transportation.[231]

Constitutional Convention of 1787 Main article: Constitutional Convention (United States)

Shays' Rebellion confirmed for Washington the need to overhaul the Articles of Confederation. Before returning to private life in June 1783, Washington called for a strong union. Though he was concerned that he might be criticized for meddling in civil matters, he sent a circular letter to all the states, maintaining that the Articles of Confederation was no more than "a rope of sand" linking the states. He believed the nation was on the verge of "anarchy and confusion", was vulnerable to foreign intervention, and that a national constitution would unify the states under a strong central government.[232] When Shays' Rebellion erupted in Massachusetts on August 29, 1786, over taxation, Washington was further convinced that a national constitution was needed.[233] Some nationalists feared that the new republic had descended into lawlessness, and they met together on September 11, 1786, at Annapolis to ask Congress to revise the Articles of Confederation. One of their biggest efforts, however, was getting Washington to attend.[234] Congress agreed to a Constitutional Convention to be held in Philadelphia in Spring 1787, and each state was to send delegates.[235]

On December 4, 1786, Washington was chosen to lead the Virginia delegation, but he declined on December 21. He had concerns about the legality of the convention and consulted James Madison, Henry Knox, and others. They persuaded him to attend it, however, as his presence might induce reluctant states to send delegates and smooth the way for the ratification process.[236] On March 28, Washington told Governor Edmund Randolph that he would attend the convention but made it clear that he was urged to attend.[237]

Painting by Howard Chandler Christy, depicting the signing of the Constitution of the United States, with Washington as the presiding officer standing at right Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940. Washington is the presiding officer standing at right. Washington arrived in Philadelphia on May 9, 1787, though a quorum was not attained until Friday, May 25. Benjamin Franklin nominated Washington to preside over the convention, and he was unanimously elected to serve as president general.[238] The convention's state-mandated purpose was to revise the Articles of Confederation with "all such alterations and further provisions" required to improve them, and the new government would be established when the resulting document was "duly confirmed by the several states".[239] Governor Edmund Randolph of Virginia introduced Madison's Virginia Plan on May 27, the third day of the convention. It called for an entirely new constitution and a sovereign national government, which Washington highly recommended.[240]

Washington wrote Alexander Hamilton on July 10: "I almost despair of seeing a favorable issue to the proceedings of our convention and do therefore repent having had any agency in the business."[241] Nevertheless, he lent his prestige to the goodwill and work of the other delegates. He unsuccessfully lobbied many to support ratification of the Constitution, such as anti-federalist Patrick Henry; Washington told him "the adoption of it under the present circumstances of the Union is in my opinion desirable" and declared the alternative would be anarchy.[242] Washington and Madison then spent four days at Mount Vernon evaluating the new government's transition.[243]

Chancellor of William & Mary In 1788, the Board of Visitors of the College of William & Mary decided to re-establish the position of Chancellor, and elected Washington to the office on January 18.[244] The College Rector Samuel Griffin wrote to Washington inviting him to the post, and in a letter dated April 30, 1788, Washington accepted the position of the 14th Chancellor of the College of William & Mary.[244][245] He continued to serve in the post through his presidency until his death on December 14, 1799.[244]

First presidential election Main article: 1788–89 United States presidential election The delegates to the Convention anticipated a Washington presidency and left it to him to define the office once elected.[241][n] The state electors under the Constitution voted for the president on February 4, 1789, and Washington suspected that most republicans had not voted for him.[247] The mandated March 4 date passed without a Congressional quorum to count the votes, but a quorum was reached on April 5. The votes were tallied the next day,[248] and Congressional Secretary Charles Thomson was sent to Mount Vernon to tell Washington he had been elected president. Washington won the majority of every state's electoral votes; John Adams received the next highest number of votes and therefore became vice president.[249] Washington had "anxious and painful sensations" about leaving the "domestic felicity" of Mount Vernon, but departed for New York City on April 16 to be inaugurated.[250]

Presidency (1789–1797) Main article: Presidency of George Washington Painting by Gilbert Stuart (1795), formal portrait of President George Washington President George Washington, Gilbert Stuart (1795) Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789, taking the oath of office at Federal Hall in New York City.[251][o] His coach was led by militia and a marching band and followed by statesmen and foreign dignitaries in an inaugural parade, with a crowd of 10,000.[253] Chancellor Robert R. Livingston administered the oath, using a Bible provided by the Masons, after which the militia fired a 13-gun salute.[254] Washington read a speech in the Senate Chamber, asking "that Almighty Being who rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations—and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, consecrate the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States".[255] Though he wished to serve without a salary, Congress insisted adamantly that he accept it, later providing Washington $25,000 per year to defray costs of the presidency.[256]

Washington wrote to James Madison: "As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent, it is devoutly wished on my part that these precedents be fixed on true principles."[257] To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" over more majestic names proposed by the Senate, including "His Excellency" and "His Highness the President".[258] His executive precedents included the inaugural address, messages to Congress, and the cabinet form of the executive branch.[259]

Washington had planned to resign after his first term, but the political strife in the nation convinced him he should remain in office.[260] He was an able administrator and a judge of talent and character, and he regularly talked with department heads to get their advice.[261] He tolerated opposing views, despite fears that a democratic system would lead to political violence, and he conducted a smooth transition of power to his successor.[262] He remained non-partisan throughout his presidency and opposed the divisiveness of political parties, but he favored a strong central government, was sympathetic to a Federalist form of government, and leery of the Republican opposition.[263]

Washington dealt with major problems. The old Confederation lacked the powers to handle its workload and had weak leadership, no executive, a small bureaucracy of clerks, a large debt, worthless paper money, and no power to establish taxes.[264] He had the task of assembling an executive department and relied on Tobias Lear for advice selecting its officers.[265] Great Britain refused to relinquish its forts in the American West,[264] and Barbary pirates preyed on American merchant ships in the Mediterranean at a time when the United States did not even have a navy.[266]

Cabinet and executive departments See also: Cabinet of the United States The Washington Cabinet Office Name Term President George Washington 1789–1797 Vice President John Adams 1789–1797 Secretary of State John Jay (acting) 1789–1790 Thomas Jefferson 1790–1793 Edmund Randolph 1794–1795 Timothy Pickering 1795–1797 Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton 1789–1795 Oliver Wolcott Jr. 1795–1797 Secretary of War Henry Knox 1789–1794 Timothy Pickering 1795 James McHenry 1796–1797 Attorney General Edmund Randolph 1789–1794 William Bradford 1794–1795 Charles Lee 1795–1797 Congress created executive departments in 1789, including the State Department in July, the Department of War in August, and the Treasury Department in September. Washington appointed fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph as Attorney General, Samuel Osgood as Postmaster General, Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State, and Henry Knox as Secretary of War. Finally, he appointed Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury. Washington's cabinet became a consulting and advisory body, not mandated by the Constitution.[267]

Washington's cabinet members formed rival parties with sharply opposing views, most fiercely illustrated between Hamilton and Jefferson.[268] Washington restricted cabinet discussions to topics of his choosing, without participating in the debate. He occasionally requested cabinet opinions in writing and expected department heads to agreeably carry out his decisions.[264]

Domestic issues Washington was apolitical and opposed the formation of parties, suspecting that conflict would undermine republicanism.[269] He exercised great restraint in using his veto power, writing that “I give my Signature to many Bills with which my Judgment is at variance….”[270]

His closest advisors formed two factions, portending the First Party System. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton formed the Federalist Party to promote national credit and a financially powerful nation. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's agenda and founded the Jeffersonian Republicans. Washington favored Hamilton's agenda, however, and it ultimately went into effect—resulting in bitter controversy.[271]

Washington proclaimed November 26 as a day of Thanksgiving to encourage national unity. "It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor." He spent that day fasting and visiting debtors in prison to provide them with food and beer.[272]

African Americans In response to two antislavery petitions that were presented to Congress in 1790, slaveholders in Georgia and South Carolina objected and threatened to "blow the trumpet of civil war". Washington and Congress responded with a series of racist measures: naturalized citizenship was denied to black immigrants; blacks were barred from serving in state militias; the Southwest Territory that would soon become the state of Tennessee was permitted to maintain slavery; and two more slave states were admitted (Kentucky in 1792, and Tennessee in 1796). On February 12, 1793, Washington signed into law the Fugitive Slave Act, which overrode state laws and courts, allowing agents to cross state lines to capture and return escaped slaves.[273] Many free blacks in the north decried the law believing it would allow bounty hunting and the kidnappings of blacks.[274] The Fugitive Slave Act gave effect to the Constitution's Fugitive Slave Clause, and the Act was passed overwhelmingly in Congress (e.g. the vote was 48 to 7 in the House).[275]

On the anti-slavery side of the ledger, in 1789 Washington signed a reenactment of the Northwest Ordinance which freed all slaves brought after 1787 into a vast expanse of federal territory north of the Ohio River, except for slaves escaping from slave states.[276][277] The Slave Trade Act of 1794, which sharply limited American involvement in the Atlantic slave trade, was signed by Washington. [278] And, Congress acted on February 18, 1791 to admit the free state of Vermont into the Union as the 14th state as of March 4, 1791.[279]

National Bank Engraving of President Washington's House in Philadelphia, his residence from 1790 to 1797 The President's House in Philadelphia was Washington's residence from 1790 to 1797 Washington's first term was largely devoted to economic concerns, in which Hamilton had devised various plans to address matters.[280] The establishment of public credit became a primary challenge for the federal government.[281] Hamilton submitted a report to a deadlocked Congress, and he, Madison, and Jefferson reached the Compromise of 1790 in which Jefferson agreed to Hamilton's debt proposals in exchange for moving the nation's capital temporarily to Philadelphia and then south near Georgetown on the Potomac River.[271] The terms were legislated in the Funding Act of 1790 and the Residence Act, both of which Washington signed into law. Congress authorized the assumption and payment of the nation's debts, with funding provided by customs duties and excise taxes.[282]

Hamilton created controversy among Cabinet members by advocating establishing the First Bank of the United States. Madison and Jefferson objected, but the bank easily passed Congress. Jefferson and Randolph insisted that the new bank was beyond the authority granted by the constitution, as Hamilton believed. Washington sided with Hamilton and signed the legislation on February 25, and the rift became openly hostile between Hamilton and Jefferson.[283]

The nation's first financial crisis occurred in March 1792. Hamilton's Federalists exploited large loans to gain control of U.S. debt securities, causing a run on the national bank;[284] the markets returned to normal by mid-April.[285] Jefferson believed Hamilton was part of the scheme, despite Hamilton's efforts to ameliorate, and Washington again found himself in the middle of a feud.[286]

Jefferson–Hamilton feud Jefferson and Hamilton Formal portrait of Thomas Jefferson, part of a dual image of Jefferson and Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Formal portrait of Alexander Hamilton, part of a dual image of Jefferson and Hamilton Alexander Hamilton Jefferson and Hamilton adopted diametrically opposed political principles. Hamilton believed in a strong national government requiring a national bank and foreign loans to function, while Jefferson believed the states and the farm element should primarily direct the government; he also resented the idea of banks and foreign loans. To Washington's dismay, the two men persistently entered into disputes and infighting.[287] Hamilton demanded that Jefferson resign if he could not support Washington, and Jefferson told Washington that Hamilton's fiscal system would lead to the overthrow of the Republic.[288] Washington urged them to call a truce for the nation's sake, but they ignored him.[289]

Washington reversed his decision to retire after his first term to minimize party strife, but the feud continued after his re-election.[288] Jefferson's political actions, his support of Freneau's National Gazette,[290] and his attempt to undermine Hamilton nearly led Washington to dismiss him from the cabinet; Jefferson ultimately resigned his position in December 1793, and Washington forsook him from that time on.[291]

The feud led to the well-defined Federalist and Republican parties, and party affiliation became necessary for election to Congress by 1794.[292] Washington remained aloof from congressional attacks on Hamilton, but he did not publicly protect him, either. The Hamilton–Reynolds sex scandal opened Hamilton to disgrace, but Washington continued to hold him in "very high esteem" as the dominant force in establishing federal law and government.[293]

Whiskey Rebellion In March 1791, at Hamilton's urging, with support from Madison, Congress imposed an excise tax on distilled spirits to help curtail the national debt, which took effect in July.[294] Grain farmers strongly protested in Pennsylvania's frontier districts; they argued that they were unrepresented and were shouldering too much of the debt, comparing their situation to excessive British taxation before the Revolutionary War. On August 2, Washington assembled his cabinet to discuss how to deal with the situation. Unlike Washington, who had reservations about using force, Hamilton had long waited for such a situation and was eager to suppress the rebellion by using federal authority and force.[295] Not wanting to involve the federal government if possible, Washington called on Pennsylvania state officials to take the initiative, but they declined to take military action. On August 7, Washington issued his first proclamation for calling up state militias. After appealing for peace, he reminded the protestors that, unlike the rule of the British crown, the Federal law was issued by state-elected representatives.[296]

Threats and violence against tax collectors, however, escalated into defiance against federal authority in 1794 and gave rise to the Whiskey Rebellion. Washington issued a final proclamation on September 25, threatening the use of military force to no avail.[296] The federal army was not up to the task, so Washington invoked the Militia Act of 1792 to summon state militias.[297] Governors sent troops, initially commanded by Washington, who gave the command to Light-Horse Harry Lee to lead them into the rebellious districts. They took 150 prisoners, and the remaining rebels dispersed without further fighting. Two of the prisoners were condemned to death, but Washington exercised his Constitutional authority for the first time and pardoned them.[298]

Washington's forceful action demonstrated that the new government could protect itself and its tax collectors. This represented the first use of federal military force against the states and citizens,[299] and remains the only time an incumbent president has commanded troops in the field. Washington justified his action against "certain self-created societies", which he regarded as "subversive organizations" that threatened the national union. He did not dispute their right to protest, but he insisted that their dissent must not violate federal law. Congress agreed and extended their congratulations to him; only Madison and Jefferson expressed indifference.[300]

Foreign affairs Gilbert Stuart portrait of Chief Justice John Jay in robes, seated and holding a law book John Jay, negotiator of the Jay Treaty In April 1792, the French Revolutionary Wars began between Great Britain and France, and Washington declared America's neutrality. The revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Citizen Genêt to America, and he was welcomed with great enthusiasm. He created a network of new Democratic-Republican Societies promoting France's interests, but Washington denounced them and demanded that the French recall Genêt.[301] The National Assembly of France granted Washington honorary French citizenship on August 26, 1792, during the early stages of the French Revolution.[302] Hamilton formulated the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Great Britain while removing them from western forts, and also to resolve financial debts remaining from the Revolution.[303] Chief Justice John Jay acted as Washington's negotiator and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794; critical Jeffersonians, however, supported France. Washington deliberated, then supported the treaty because it avoided war with Britain,[304] but was disappointed that its provisions favored Britain.[305] He mobilized public opinion and secured ratification in the Senate[306] but faced frequent public criticism.[307]

The British agreed to abandon their forts around the Great Lakes, and the United States modified the boundary with Canada. The government liquidated numerous pre-Revolutionary debts, and the British opened the British West Indies to American trade. The treaty secured peace with Britain and a decade of prosperous trade. Jefferson claimed that it angered France and "invited rather than avoided" war.[308] Relations with France deteriorated afterward, leaving succeeding president John Adams with prospective war.[309] James Monroe was the American Minister to France, but Washington recalled him for his opposition to the Treaty. The French refused to accept his replacement Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and the French Directory declared the authority to seize American ships two days before Washington's term ended.[310]

Native American affairs Further information: Native Americans in the United States, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of New York (1790), Treaty of Greenville, Northwest Territory, and Ohio Country Portrait of Seneca Chief Sagoyewatha, Washington's peace emissary Seneca Chief Sagoyewatha was Washington's peace emissary with the Western Confederation. Ron Chernow describes Washington as always trying to be even-handed in dealing with the Natives. He states that Washington hoped they would abandon their itinerant hunting life and adapt to fixed agricultural communities in the manner of white settlers. He also maintains that Washington never advocated outright confiscation of tribal land or the forcible removal of tribes and that he berated American settlers who abused natives, admitting that he held out no hope for pacific relations with the natives as long as "frontier settlers entertain the opinion that there is not the same crime (or indeed no crime at all) in killing a native as in killing a white man."[311]

By contrast, Colin G. Calloway writes that "Washington had a lifelong obsession with getting Indian land, either for himself or for his nation, and initiated policies and campaigns that had devastating effects in Indian country."[312] "The growth of the nation," Galloway has stated, "demanded the dispossession of Indian people. Washington hoped the process could be bloodless and that Indian people would give up their lands for a "fair" price and move away. But if Indians refused and resisted, as they often did, he felt he had no choice but to "extirpate" them and that the expeditions he sent to destroy Indian towns were therefore entirely justified."[313]

During the Fall of 1789, Washington had to contend with the British refusing to evacuate their forts in the Northwest frontier and their concerted efforts to incite hostile Indian tribes to attack American settlers.[314][p] The Northwest tribes under Miami chief Little Turtle allied with the British Army to resist American expansion, and killed 1,500 settlers between 1783 and 1790.[315]

As documented by Harless (2018), Washington declared that "The Government of the United States are determined that their Administration of Indian Affairs shall be directed entirely by the great principles of Justice and humanity",[316] and provided that treaties should negotiate their land interests.[316] The administration regarded powerful tribes as foreign nations, and Washington even smoked a peace pipe and drank wine with them at the Philadelphia presidential house.[317] He made numerous attempts to conciliate them;[318] he equated killing indigenous peoples with killing whites and sought to integrate them into European-American culture.[319] Secretary of War Henry Knox also attempted to encourage agriculture among the tribes.[318]

In the Southwest, negotiations failed between federal commissioners and raiding Indian tribes seeking retribution. Washington invited Creek Chief Alexander McGillivray and 24 leading chiefs to New York to negotiate a treaty and treated them like foreign dignitaries. Knox and McGillivray concluded the Treaty of New York on August 7, 1790, in Federal Hall, which provided the tribes with agricultural supplies and McGillivray with a rank of Brigadier General Army and a salary of $1,500.[320]

A R.F. Zogbaum scene of the Battle of Fallen Timbers includes Native Americans aiming as cavalry soldiers charge with raised swords and one soldier is shot and loses his mount Battle of Fallen Timbers by R. F. Zogbaum, 1896. The Ohio Country was ceded to America in its aftermath. In 1790, Washington sent Brigadier General Josiah Harmar to pacify the Northwest tribes, but Little Turtle routed him twice and forced him to withdraw.[321] The Western Confederacy of tribes used guerrilla tactics and were an effective force against the sparsely manned American Army. Washington sent Major General Arthur St. Clair from Fort Washington on an expedition to restore peace in the territory in 1791. On November 4, St. Clair's forces were ambushed and soundly defeated by tribal forces with few survivors, despite Washington's warning of surprise attacks. Washington was outraged over what he viewed to be excessive Native American brutality and execution of captives, including women and children.[322]

St. Clair resigned his commission, and Washington replaced him with the Revolutionary War hero General Anthony Wayne. From 1792 to 1793, Wayne instructed his troops on Native American warfare tactics and instilled discipline which was lacking under St. Clair.[323] In August 1794, Washington sent Wayne into tribal territory with authority to drive them out by burning their villages and crops in the Maumee Valley.[324] On August 24, the American army under Wayne's leadership defeated the western confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and the Treaty of Greenville in August 1795 opened up two-thirds of the Ohio Country for American settlement.[325]

Second term Originally, Washington had planned to retire after his first term, while many Americans could not imagine anyone else taking his place.[326] After nearly four years as president, and dealing with the infighting in his own cabinet and with partisan critics, Washington showed little enthusiasm in running for a second term, while Martha also wanted him not to run.[327] James Madison urged him not to retire, that his absence would only allow the dangerous political rift in his cabinet and the House to worsen. Jefferson also pleaded with him not to retire and agreed to drop his attacks on Hamilton, or he would also retire if Washington did.[328] Hamilton maintained that Washington's absence would be "deplored as the greatest evil" to the country at this time.[329] Washington's close nephew George Augustine Washington, his manager at Mount Vernon, was critically ill and had to be replaced, further increasing Washington's desire to retire and return to Mount Vernon.[330]

When the election of 1792 neared, Washington did not publicly announce his presidential candidacy. Still, he silently consented to run to prevent a further political-personal rift in his cabinet. The Electoral College unanimously elected him president on February 13, 1793, and John Adams as vice president by a vote of 77 to 50.[319] Washington, with nominal fanfare, arrived alone at his inauguration in his carriage. Sworn into office by Associate Justice William Cushing on March 4, 1793, in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Washington gave a brief address and then immediately retired to his Philadelphia presidential house, weary of office and in poor health.[331]

Painting of the frigate USS Constitution with three masts USS Constitution: Commissioned and named by President Washington in 1794 On April 22, 1793, during the French Revolution, Washington issued his famous Neutrality Proclamation and was resolved to pursue "a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent Powers" while he warned Americans not to intervene in the international conflict. [332] Although Washington recognized France's revolutionary government, he would eventually ask French minister to America Citizen Genêt be recalled over the Citizen Genêt Affair.[333] Genêt was a diplomatic troublemaker who was openly hostile toward Washington's neutrality policy. He procured four American ships as privateers to strike at Spanish forces (British allies) in Florida while organizing militias to strike at other British possessions. However, his efforts failed to draw America into the foreign campaigns during Washington's presidency.[334] On July 31, 1793, Jefferson submitted his resignation from Washington's cabinet.[335] Washington signed the Naval Act of 1794 and commissioned the first six federal frigates to combat Barbary pirates.[336]

In January 1795, Hamilton, who desired more income for his family, resigned office and was replaced by Washington appointment Oliver Wolcott, Jr.. Washington and Hamilton remained friends. However, Washington's relationship with his Secretary of War Henry Knox deteriorated. Knox resigned office on the rumor he profited from construction contracts on U.S. Frigates.[337]

In the final months of his presidency, Washington was assailed by his political foes and a partisan press who accused him of being ambitious and greedy, while he argued that he had taken no salary during the war and had risked his life in battle. He regarded the press as a disuniting, "diabolical" force of falsehoods, sentiments that he expressed in his Farewell Address.[338] At the end of his second term, Washington retired for personal and political reasons, dismayed with personal attacks, and to ensure that a truly contested presidential election could be held. He did not feel bound to a two-term limit, but his retirement set a significant precedent. Washington is often credited with setting the principle of a two-term presidency, but it was Thomas Jefferson who first refused to run for a third term on political grounds.[339]

Farewell Address Main article: George Washington's Farewell Address Newspaper showing Washington's Farewell Address Washington's Farewell Address (September 19, 1796) In 1796, Washington declined to run for a third term of office, believing his death in office would create an image of a lifetime appointment. The precedent of a two-term limit was created by his retirement from office.[340] In May 1792, in anticipation of his retirement, Washington instructed James Madison to prepare a "valedictory address", an initial draft of which was entitled the "Farewell Address".[341] In May 1796, Washington sent the manuscript to his Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton who did an extensive rewrite, while Washington provided final edits.[342] On September 19, 1796, David Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser published the final version of the address.[343]

Washington stressed that national identity was paramount, while a united America would safeguard freedom and prosperity. He warned the nation of three eminent dangers: regionalism, partisanship, and foreign entanglements, and said the "name of AMERICAN, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations."[344] Washington called for men to move beyond partisanship for the common good, stressing that the United States must concentrate on its own interests. He warned against foreign alliances and their influence in domestic affairs, and bitter partisanship and the dangers of political parties.[345] He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but advised against involvement in European wars.[346] He stressed the importance of religion, asserting that "religion and morality are indispensable supports" in a republic.[347] Washington's address favored Hamilton's Federalist ideology and economic policies.[348]

Washington closed the address by reflecting on his legacy:

Though in reviewing the incidents of my Administration I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence, and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.[349] After initial publication, many Republicans, including Madison, criticized the Address and believed it was an anti-French campaign document. Madison believed Washington was strongly pro-British. Madison also was suspicious of who authored the Address.[350]

In 1839, Washington biographer Jared Sparks maintained that Washington's "... Farewell Address was printed and published with the laws, by order of the legislatures, as an evidence of the value they attached to its political precepts, and of their affection for its author."[351] In 1972, Washington scholar James Flexner referred to the Farewell Address as receiving as much acclaim as Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.[352] In 2010, historian Ron Chernow reported the Farewell Address proved to be one of the most influential statements on Republicanism.[353]

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Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 1636–1776 Flag of Rhode Island Flag Seal of Rhode Island Seal Rhode Island 1750 to 1776.png Status Colony of England (1636–1707) Colony of Great Britain (1707–1776) Capital Providence, Newport Languages English, Narragansett, Massachusett Ethnic groups English, Black, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Niantic Government Crown Colony Governor History • Established 1636 • Foundation 1637 • Chartered as an English colony 1644 • Coddington Commission 1651–1653 • Royal Charter 1663 • Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688 • Resumption of Royal Charter 1688 • Disestablished 1776 Currency Rhode Island pound Preceded by Succeeded by Narragansett Indians State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Today part of United States The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded by Roger Williams. It was an English colony from 1636 until 1707, and then a colony of Great Britain until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island.


Contents 1 Early America 2 Cromwell interregnum 3 Sanctuary for religious freedom 4 Dominion of New England 5 American Revolutionary period 6 Boundaries 6.1 Western boundary 6.2 Eastern boundary 6.3 Northern boundary 7 Demographics 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References Early America[edit] The land that became the English colony was first home to the Narragansett Indians, which led to the name of the modern town of Narragansett, Rhode Island. European settlement began around 1622 with a trading post at Sowams, now the town of Warren, Rhode Island.


The original 1636 deed to Providence, signed by Chief Canonicus Roger Williams was a Puritan theologian and linguist who founded Providence Plantations in 1636 on land given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus. He was exiled under religious persecution from the Massachusetts Bay Colony; he and his fellow settlers agreed on an egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule "in civil things," with liberty of conscience on spiritual matters. He named the settlement Providence Plantation, believing that God had brought them there. (The term "plantation" was used in the 17th century to mean an agricultural colony.)[1] Williams named the islands in the Narragansett Bay after Christian virtues: Patience, Prudence, and Hope Islands.[2]

In 1637, another group of Massachusetts dissenters purchased land from the Indians on Aquidneck Island, which was called Rhode Island at the time, and they established a settlement called Pocasset. The group included William Coddington, John Clarke, and Anne and William Hutchinson, among others. That settlement, however, quickly split into two separate settlements. Samuel Gorton and others remained to establish the settlement of Portsmouth (which formerly was Pocasset) in 1638, while Coddington and Clarke established nearby Newport in 1639. Both settlements were situated on Rhode Island (Aquidneck).[3]

The second plantation settlement on the mainland was Samuel Gorton's Shawomet Purchase from the Narragansetts in 1642. As soon as Gorton settled at Shawomet, however, the Massachusetts Bay authorities laid claim to his territory and acted to enforce their claim. After considerable difficulties with the Massachusetts Bay General Court, Gorton traveled to London to enlist the help of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, head of the Commission for Foreign Plantations. Gorton returned in 1648 with a letter from Rich, ordering Massachusetts to cease molesting him and his people. In gratitude, he changed the name of Shawomet Plantation to Warwick.[4]

Cromwell interregnum[edit] In 1651, William Coddington obtained a separate charter from England setting up the Coddington Commission, which made him life governor of the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut in a federation with Connecticut Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. Protest, open rebellion, and a further petition to Oliver Cromwell in London led to the reinstatement of the original charter in 1653.[5]

Sanctuary for religious freedom[edit]

Roger Williams returning with the royal charter Following the 1660 restoration of royal rule in England, it was necessary to gain a Royal Charter from King Charles II. Charles was a Catholic sympathizer in staunchly Protestant England, and he approved of the colony's promise of religious freedom. He granted the request with the Royal Charter of 1663, uniting the four settlements together into the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. In the following years, many persecuted groups settled in the colony, notably Quakers and Jews.[6][7] The Rhode Island colony was very progressive for the time, passing laws abolishing witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, and most capital punishment.[8][9] The colony also passed the first anti-slavery law in America on May 18, 1652, though the practice remained widespread in Rhode Island and there exists no evidence that the legislation was ever enforced.[10]

Rhode Island remained at peace with local Indians, but the relationship was more strained between other New England colonies and certain tribes and sometimes led to bloodshed, despite attempts by the Rhode Island leadership to broker peace.[6][7] During King Philip's War (1675–1676), both sides regularly violated Rhode Island's neutrality. The war's largest battle occurred in Rhode Island on December 19, 1675 when a force of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett village in the Great Swamp.[11] The Narragansetts also invaded and burned several towns in Rhode Island, including Providence. Roger Williams knew both Metacom (Philip) and Canonchet as children. He was aware of the tribe's activities and promptly sent letters informing the Governor of Massachusetts of enemy movements. Providence Plantations made some efforts at fortifying the town, and Williams even started training recruits for protection. In one of the final actions of the war, troops from Connecticut killed King Philip (Metacom) in Mount Hope, Rhode Island.[6][7]

Dominion of New England[edit] In the 1680s, Charles II sought to streamline administration of the English colonies and to more closely control their trade. The Navigation Acts passed in the 1660s were widely disliked, since merchants often found themselves trapped and at odds with the rules. However, many colonial governments, Massachusetts principally among them, refused to enforce the acts, and took matters one step further by obstructing the activities of the Crown agents.[12] Charles' successor James II introduced the Dominion of New England in 1686 as a means to accomplish these goals. Under its provisional president Joseph Dudley, the disputed "King's Country" (present-day Washington County) was brought into the dominion, and the rest of the colony was brought under dominion control by Governor Sir Edmund Andros. The rule of Andros was extremely unpopular, especially in Massachusetts. The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought William III and Mary II to the English throne; Massachusetts authorities conspired in April 1689 to have Andros arrested and sent back to England.[citation needed] With this event, the dominion collapsed and Rhode Island resumed its previous government.[13]

The bedrock of the economy continued to be agriculture – especially dairy farming – and fishing; lumber and shipbuilding also became major industries. Slaves were introduced at this time, although there is no record of any law re-legalizing slave holding. Ironically, the colony later prospered under the slave trade, by distilling rum to sell in Africa as part of a profitable triangular trade in slaves and sugar between Africa, America, and the Caribbean.[14]

American Revolutionary period[edit]

Four time governor of the colony and first chancellor of Brown University, Stephen Hopkins, was influential in his support of the American Revolution Leading figures in the colony were involved in the 1776 launch of the American Revolutionary War which delivered American independence from the British Empire, such as former royal governors Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward, as well as John Brown, Nicholas Brown, William Ellery, the Reverend James Manning, and the Reverend Ezra Stiles, each of whom had played an influential role in founding Brown University in Providence in 1764 as a sanctuary for religious and intellectual freedom.[citation needed]

On May 4, 1776, Rhode Island became the first of the 13 colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown,[15] and was the fourth to ratify the Articles of Confederation between the newly sovereign states on February 9, 1778.[16] It boycotted the 1787 convention that drew up the United States Constitution,[17] and initially refused to ratify it.[18] It relented after Congress sent a series of constitutional amendments to the states for ratification, the Bill of Rights guaranteeing specific personal freedoms and rights; clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings; and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island became the 13th state and the last of the former colonies to ratify the Constitution.[19]

Boundaries[edit] The boundaries of the colony underwent numerous changes, including repeated disputes with Massachusetts and Connecticut Colonies who contested for control of territory later awarded to Rhode Island. Rhode Island's early compacts did not stipulate the boundary on the eastern shore of Narrangansett Bay, and did not include any of Washington County, land that belonged to the Narragansett people. The original settlements were at Providence, Warwick, Newport, and Portsmouth, and the territory was expanded by purchasing land from the Narragansetts westward toward Connecticut and the smaller islands in Narrangasett Bay. Block Island was settled in 1637 after the Pequot War, became a part of the colony in 1664, and was incorporated in 1672 as New Shoreham.[20]

Western boundary[edit]

The Pawcatuck River defined the southeastern border between colonial Connecticut and Rhode Island The western boundary with Connecticut was defined ambiguously as the "Narragansett River" in the Connecticut charter, which was decided by arbitrators in 1663 to be the Pawcatuck River from its mouth to the Ashaway River mouth, from which a northward line was drawn to the Massachusetts line. This resolved a long-standing dispute concerning the former Narragansett lands which were also claimed by Connecticut and Massachusetts, although the dispute continued until 1703, when the arbitration award was upheld. After repeated surveys, a mutually agreeable line was defined and surveyed in 1728.[20]

Eastern boundary[edit] The eastern boundary was also an area of dispute with Massachusetts. Overlapping charters had awarded an area extending three miles inland to both Plymouth and Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay; this area was awarded to Rhode Island in 1741, establishing Rhode Island's jurisdiction over Barrington, Warren, Bristol, Tiverton, and Little Compton which Massachusetts had claimed. Also adjudicated in the 1741 decision was the award of most of Cumberland to Rhode Island from Massachusetts. The final establishment of the boundaries north of Barrington and east of the Blackstone River occurred almost a century after American independence,[20] requiring protracted litigation and multiple US Supreme Court decisions. In the final decision, a portion of Tiverton was awarded to Massachusetts to become part of Fall River, and 2/3 of Seekonk (Now eastern Pawtucket and East Providence) was awarded to Rhode Island in 1862.

Northern boundary[edit] Rhode Island's northern border with Massachusetts also underwent a number of changes. Massachusetts surveyed this line in 1642, but subsequent surveys by Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut agreed that it was placed too far south.[20] In 1718-19, commissioners for Rhode Island and Massachusetts agreed on roughly that line anyway (except the section east of the Blackstone River, which remained disputed until 1741), and this is where the line remains today.

Demographics[edit] Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1640 300 — 1650 785 +161.7% 1660 1,539 +96.1% 1670 2,155 +40.0% 1680 3,017 +40.0% 1690 4,224 +40.0% 1700 5,894 +39.5% 1710 7,573 +28.5% 1720 11,680 +54.2% 1730 16,950 +45.1% 1740 25,255 +49.0% 1750 33,226 +31.6% 1760 45,471 +36.9% 1770 58,196 +28.0% 1774 59,607 +2.4% 1780 52,946 −11.2% Source: 1640–1760;[21] 1774[22] 1770–1780[23] From 1640 to 1774, the population of Rhode Island grew from 300 to 59,607,[21][22] but then declined during the American Revolutionary War to 52,946 in 1780.[23] After William Coddington and a group of 13 other men bought Aquidneck Island from Narragansett Indians in 1639, the population of Newport, Rhode Island grew from 96 in 1640 to 7,500 in 1760 (making Newport the fifth-largest city in the Thirteen Colonies at the time),[24][25] and Newport grew further to 9,209 by 1774.[22] The black population in the colony grew from 25 in 1650 to 3,668 in 1774 (ranging between 3 and 10 percent of the population),[21][22] and like the state as a whole, declined to 2,671 (or 5 percent of the population) by 1780.[23] In 1774, Indians accounted for 1,479 of the inhabitants of the colony (or 3 percent).[22]

Rhode Island was the only New England colony without an established church.[26] In 1650, of the 109 places of worship with regular services in the eight British American colonies (including those without resident clergy), only 4 were located in Rhode Island (2 Baptist and 2 Congregational),[26] while there was a small Jewish enclave in Newport by 1658.[27] Following the First Great Awakening (1730–1755), the number of regular places of worship in Rhode Island grew to 50 in 1750 (30 Baptist, 12 Congregational, 7 Anglican, and 1 Jewish),[28] with the colony gaining an additional 5 regular places of worship by 1776 (26 Baptist, 11 Friends, 9 Congregational, 5 Episcopal, 1 Jewish, 1 New Light Congregational, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Sandemanian).[29]

Puritan mass migration to New England began following the issuance of the royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company by Charles I of England in 1629 and continued until the beginning of the English Civil War in 1642, while following the war's conclusion in 1651, immigration to New England leveled off and the population growth owed almost entirely to natural increase rather than immigration or slave importations for the remainder of the 17th century and through the 18th century.[30][31] Mass migration from New England to the Province of New York and the Province of New Jersey began following the surrender of New Netherland by the Dutch Republic at Fort Amsterdam in 1664, and the population of New York would continue to expand more so by in-migration by families from New England (including Rhode Island) in the 18th century rather than from natural increase.[32][33][34]

Despite the initial Puritan mass migration also having a 2:1 male sex-imbalance like the British colonization of the Chesapeake Colonies,[35][36] unlike the Southern Colonies in the 17th century, most Puritan immigrants to New England migrated as families (as approximately two-thirds of the male Puritan immigrants to New England were married rather than unmarried indentured servants),[30][36] and in late 17th century New England, 3 percent of the population was over the age of 65 (while only 1 percent in the Chesapeake was in 1704).[37] By the American Revolutionary War, only 2 percent of the New England colonial labor force were bonded or convict laborers and another 2 percent were black slaves, while 9 percent of the colonial black population in New England were free persons of color (as compared with only 3 percent in the Southern Colonies).[31][38] In February 1784, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a gradual emancipation law that increased the ratio of the free black population in Rhode Island to 78 percent by the 1790 U.S. Census and that would ultimately eliminate slavery in Rhode Island by 1842.[39][40][41]

See also[edit] American Revolutionary War §Background and political developments. The 1772 Gaspee Affair in sequence and strategic context. British America List of colonial governors of Rhode Island Notes[edit] ^ Franklin, Wayne (2012). New York, The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W W Norton & Company. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-393-93476-2 ^ "Prudence Island Light". History. lighthouse.cc. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Bicknell, Thomas Williams (1920). The History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 3. New York: The American Historical Society. pp. 975–976. ^ Paul Edward Parker (October 31, 2010). "How 'Providence Plantations' and Rhode Island were joined". The Providence Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ "A Chronological History of Remarkable Events, in the Settlement and Growth of Providence". Rhode Island USGenWeb Project (scan by Susan Pieroth; transcription by Kathleen Beilstein). 2002. Archived from the original on January 14, 2005. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b c Mudge, Zachariah Atwell (1871). Foot-Prints of Roger Williams: A Biography, with Sketches of Important Events in Early New England History, with Which He Was Connected. Hitchocok & Waldon. Sunday-School Department. ISBN 1270833367. ^ Jump up to: a b c Straus, Oscar Solomon (1936). Roger Williams: The Pioneer of Religious Liberty. Ayer Co Pub. ISBN 9780836955866. ^ "Rhode Island and Roger Williams" in Chronicles of America ^ Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University, 1913. Chapter 5. See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ Archived September 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ^ "America's First Anti-Slavery Statute Was Passed in 1652. Here's Why It Was Ignored". Time. Retrieved December 14, 2020. ^ Michael Tougias (1997). "King Philip's War in New England". King Philip's War : The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict. historyplace.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Labaree, pp. 94, 111–113 ^ Lovejoy, pp. 247, 249 ^ "The Unrighteous Traffick", in The Providence Journal Sunday, March 12, 2006. Archived September 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ^ "The May 4, 1776, Act of Renunciation". State of Rhode Island. Retrieved May 3, 2014. ^ Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6. ^ "Letter from Certain Citizens of Rhode Island to the Federal Convention". Ashland, Ohio: TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Retrieved October 21, 2015. ^ Flexner, James Thomas (1984). Washington, The Indispensable Man. New York: Signet. pp. 208. ISBN 0-451-12890-7. ^ Vile, John R. (2005). The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding (Volume 1: A-M). ABC-CLIO. p. 658. ISBN 1-85109-669-8. Retrieved October 21, 2015. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cady, pp. 1-31 ^ Jump up to: a b c Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 142. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. p. 1168. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 227. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. pp. 259–260. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 213. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 181. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 198. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 133. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 126. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 148. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 150. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 250. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 153. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 164. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 161. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ "Slavery in Rhode Island". Slavery in the North. Retrieved May 24, 2020. ^ "Slavery in the North". Slavery in the North. Retrieved May 24, 2020. ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay. HISTORICAL CENSUS STATISTICS ON POPULATION TOTALS BY RACE, 1790 TO 1990, AND BY HISPANIC ORIGIN, 1970 TO 1990, FOR THE UNITED STATES, REGIONS, DIVISIONS, AND STATES (PDF) (Report). United States Census Bureau. p. 72. Retrieved May 24, 2020. References[edit] Arnold, Samuel Greene (1859). History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations vol 1 1636–1700. Applewood Books. ISBN 9781429022774. James, Sydney V. Colonial Rhode Island: A History (1975.) Cady, John Hutchins (1936). Rhode Island Boundaries 1636-1936. Rhode Island Tercentary Commission. Labaree, Benjamin (1979). Colonial Massachusetts: a History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press. ISBN 978-0-527-18714-9. OCLC 248194957. Lovejoy, David (1987). The Glorious Revolution in America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6177-0. OCLC 14212813. showvte Colonial Governors of Rhode Island showvte

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Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 1636–1776 Flag of Rhode Island Flag Seal of Rhode Island Seal Rhode Island 1750 to 1776.png Status Colony of England (1636–1707) Colony of Great Britain (1707–1776) Capital Providence, Newport Languages English, Narragansett, Massachusett Ethnic groups English, Black, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Niantic Government Crown Colony Governor History • Established 1636 • Foundation 1637 • Chartered as an English colony 1644 • Coddington Commission 1651–1653 • Royal Charter 1663 • Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688 • Resumption of Royal Charter 1688 • Disestablished 1776 Currency Rhode Island pound Preceded by Succeeded by Narragansett Indians State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Today part of United States The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded by Roger Williams. It was an English colony from 1636 until 1707, and then a colony of Great Britain until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island.


Contents 1 Early America 2 Cromwell interregnum 3 Sanctuary for religious freedom 4 Dominion of New England 5 American Revolutionary period 6 Boundaries 6.1 Western boundary 6.2 Eastern boundary 6.3 Northern boundary 7 Demographics 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References Early America[edit] The land that became the English colony was first home to the Narragansett Indians, which led to the name of the modern town of Narragansett, Rhode Island. European settlement began around 1622 with a trading post at Sowams, now the town of Warren, Rhode Island.


The original 1636 deed to Providence, signed by Chief Canonicus Roger Williams was a Puritan theologian and linguist who founded Providence Plantations in 1636 on land given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus. He was exiled under religious persecution from the Massachusetts Bay Colony; he and his fellow settlers agreed on an egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule "in civil things," with liberty of conscience on spiritual matters. He named the settlement Providence Plantation, believing that God had brought them there. (The term "plantation" was used in the 17th century to mean an agricultural colony.)[1] Williams named the islands in the Narragansett Bay after Christian virtues: Patience, Prudence, and Hope Islands.[2]

In 1637, another group of Massachusetts dissenters purchased land from the Indians on Aquidneck Island, which was called Rhode Island at the time, and they established a settlement called Pocasset. The group included William Coddington, John Clarke, and Anne and William Hutchinson, among others. That settlement, however, quickly split into two separate settlements. Samuel Gorton and others remained to establish the settlement of Portsmouth (which formerly was Pocasset) in 1638, while Coddington and Clarke established nearby Newport in 1639. Both settlements were situated on Rhode Island (Aquidneck).[3]

The second plantation settlement on the mainland was Samuel Gorton's Shawomet Purchase from the Narragansetts in 1642. As soon as Gorton settled at Shawomet, however, the Massachusetts Bay authorities laid claim to his territory and acted to enforce their claim. After considerable difficulties with the Massachusetts Bay General Court, Gorton traveled to London to enlist the help of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, head of the Commission for Foreign Plantations. Gorton returned in 1648 with a letter from Rich, ordering Massachusetts to cease molesting him and his people. In gratitude, he changed the name of Shawomet Plantation to Warwick.[4]

Cromwell interregnum[edit] In 1651, William Coddington obtained a separate charter from England setting up the Coddington Commission, which made him life governor of the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut in a federation with Connecticut Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. Protest, open rebellion, and a further petition to Oliver Cromwell in London led to the reinstatement of the original charter in 1653.[5]

Sanctuary for religious freedom[edit]

Roger Williams returning with the royal charter Following the 1660 restoration of royal rule in England, it was necessary to gain a Royal Charter from King Charles II. Charles was a Catholic sympathizer in staunchly Protestant England, and he approved of the colony's promise of religious freedom. He granted the request with the Royal Charter of 1663, uniting the four settlements together into the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. In the following years, many persecuted groups settled in the colony, notably Quakers and Jews.[6][7] The Rhode Island colony was very progressive for the time, passing laws abolishing witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, and most capital punishment.[8][9] The colony also passed the first anti-slavery law in America on May 18, 1652, though the practice remained widespread in Rhode Island and there exists no evidence that the legislation was ever enforced.[10]

Rhode Island remained at peace with local Indians, but the relationship was more strained between other New England colonies and certain tribes and sometimes led to bloodshed, despite attempts by the Rhode Island leadership to broker peace.[6][7] During King Philip's War (1675–1676), both sides regularly violated Rhode Island's neutrality. The war's largest battle occurred in Rhode Island on December 19, 1675 when a force of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett village in the Great Swamp.[11] The Narragansetts also invaded and burned several towns in Rhode Island, including Providence. Roger Williams knew both Metacom (Philip) and Canonchet as children. He was aware of the tribe's activities and promptly sent letters informing the Governor of Massachusetts of enemy movements. Providence Plantations made some efforts at fortifying the town, and Williams even started training recruits for protection. In one of the final actions of the war, troops from Connecticut killed King Philip (Metacom) in Mount Hope, Rhode Island.[6][7]

Dominion of New England[edit] In the 1680s, Charles II sought to streamline administration of the English colonies and to more closely control their trade. The Navigation Acts passed in the 1660s were widely disliked, since merchants often found themselves trapped and at odds with the rules. However, many colonial governments, Massachusetts principally among them, refused to enforce the acts, and took matters one step further by obstructing the activities of the Crown agents.[12] Charles' successor James II introduced the Dominion of New England in 1686 as a means to accomplish these goals. Under its provisional president Joseph Dudley, the disputed "King's Country" (present-day Washington County) was brought into the dominion, and the rest of the colony was brought under dominion control by Governor Sir Edmund Andros. The rule of Andros was extremely unpopular, especially in Massachusetts. The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought William III and Mary II to the English throne; Massachusetts authorities conspired in April 1689 to have Andros arrested and sent back to England.[citation needed] With this event, the dominion collapsed and Rhode Island resumed its previous government.[13]

The bedrock of the economy continued to be agriculture – especially dairy farming – and fishing; lumber and shipbuilding also became major industries. Slaves were introduced at this time, although there is no record of any law re-legalizing slave holding. Ironically, the colony later prospered under the slave trade, by distilling rum to sell in Africa as part of a profitable triangular trade in slaves and sugar between Africa, America, and the Caribbean.[14]

American Revolutionary period[edit]

Four time governor of the colony and first chancellor of Brown University, Stephen Hopkins, was influential in his support of the American Revolution Leading figures in the colony were involved in the 1776 launch of the American Revolutionary War which delivered American independence from the British Empire, such as former royal governors Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward, as well as John Brown, Nicholas Brown, William Ellery, the Reverend James Manning, and the Reverend Ezra Stiles, each of whom had played an influential role in founding Brown University in Providence in 1764 as a sanctuary for religious and intellectual freedom.[citation needed]

On May 4, 1776, Rhode Island became the first of the 13 colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown,[15] and was the fourth to ratify the Articles of Confederation between the newly sovereign states on February 9, 1778.[16] It boycotted the 1787 convention that drew up the United States Constitution,[17] and initially refused to ratify it.[18] It relented after Congress sent a series of constitutional amendments to the states for ratification, the Bill of Rights guaranteeing specific personal freedoms and rights; clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings; and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island became the 13th state and the last of the former colonies to ratify the Constitution.[19]

Boundaries[edit] The boundaries of the colony underwent numerous changes, including repeated disputes with Massachusetts and Connecticut Colonies who contested for control of territory later awarded to Rhode Island. Rhode Island's early compacts did not stipulate the boundary on the eastern shore of Narrangansett Bay, and did not include any of Washington County, land that belonged to the Narragansett people. The original settlements were at Providence, Warwick, Newport, and Portsmouth, and the territory was expanded by purchasing land from the Narragansetts westward toward Connecticut and the smaller islands in Narrangasett Bay. Block Island was settled in 1637 after the Pequot War, became a part of the colony in 1664, and was incorporated in 1672 as New Shoreham.[20]

Western boundary[edit]

The Pawcatuck River defined the southeastern border between colonial Connecticut and Rhode Island The western boundary with Connecticut was defined ambiguously as the "Narragansett River" in the Connecticut charter, which was decided by arbitrators in 1663 to be the Pawcatuck River from its mouth to the Ashaway River mouth, from which a northward line was drawn to the Massachusetts line. This resolved a long-standing dispute concerning the former Narragansett lands which were also claimed by Connecticut and Massachusetts, although the dispute continued until 1703, when the arbitration award was upheld. After repeated surveys, a mutually agreeable line was defined and surveyed in 1728.[20]

Eastern boundary[edit] The eastern boundary was also an area of dispute with Massachusetts. Overlapping charters had awarded an area extending three miles inland to both Plymouth and Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay; this area was awarded to Rhode Island in 1741, establishing Rhode Island's jurisdiction over Barrington, Warren, Bristol, Tiverton, and Little Compton which Massachusetts had claimed. Also adjudicated in the 1741 decision was the award of most of Cumberland to Rhode Island from Massachusetts. The final establishment of the boundaries north of Barrington and east of the Blackstone River occurred almost a century after American independence,[20] requiring protracted litigation and multiple US Supreme Court decisions. In the final decision, a portion of Tiverton was awarded to Massachusetts to become part of Fall River, and 2/3 of Seekonk (Now eastern Pawtucket and East Providence) was awarded to Rhode Island in 1862.

Northern boundary[edit] Rhode Island's northern border with Massachusetts also underwent a number of changes. Massachusetts surveyed this line in 1642, but subsequent surveys by Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut agreed that it was placed too far south.[20] In 1718-19, commissioners for Rhode Island and Massachusetts agreed on roughly that line anyway (except the section east of the Blackstone River, which remained disputed until 1741), and this is where the line remains today.

Demographics[edit] Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1640 300 — 1650 785 +161.7% 1660 1,539 +96.1% 1670 2,155 +40.0% 1680 3,017 +40.0% 1690 4,224 +40.0% 1700 5,894 +39.5% 1710 7,573 +28.5% 1720 11,680 +54.2% 1730 16,950 +45.1% 1740 25,255 +49.0% 1750 33,226 +31.6% 1760 45,471 +36.9% 1770 58,196 +28.0% 1774 59,607 +2.4% 1780 52,946 −11.2% Source: 1640–1760;[21] 1774[22] 1770–1780[23] From 1640 to 1774, the population of Rhode Island grew from 300 to 59,607,[21][22] but then declined during the American Revolutionary War to 52,946 in 1780.[23] After William Coddington and a group of 13 other men bought Aquidneck Island from Narragansett Indians in 1639, the population of Newport, Rhode Island grew from 96 in 1640 to 7,500 in 1760 (making Newport the fifth-largest city in the Thirteen Colonies at the time),[24][25] and Newport grew further to 9,209 by 1774.[22] The black population in the colony grew from 25 in 1650 to 3,668 in 1774 (ranging between 3 and 10 percent of the population),[21][22] and like the state as a whole, declined to 2,671 (or 5 percent of the population) by 1780.[23] In 1774, Indians accounted for 1,479 of the inhabitants of the colony (or 3 percent).[22]

Rhode Island was the only New England colony without an established church.[26] In 1650, of the 109 places of worship with regular services in the eight British American colonies (including those without resident clergy), only 4 were located in Rhode Island (2 Baptist and 2 Congregational),[26] while there was a small Jewish enclave in Newport by 1658.[27] Following the First Great Awakening (1730–1755), the number of regular places of worship in Rhode Island grew to 50 in 1750 (30 Baptist, 12 Congregational, 7 Anglican, and 1 Jewish),[28] with the colony gaining an additional 5 regular places of worship by 1776 (26 Baptist, 11 Friends, 9 Congregational, 5 Episcopal, 1 Jewish, 1 New Light Congregational, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Sandemanian).[29]

Puritan mass migration to New England began following the issuance of the royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company by Charles I of England in 1629 and continued until the beginning of the English Civil War in 1642, while following the war's conclusion in 1651, immigration to New England leveled off and the population growth owed almost entirely to natural increase rather than immigration or slave importations for the remainder of the 17th century and through the 18th century.[30][31] Mass migration from New England to the Province of New York and the Province of New Jersey began following the surrender of New Netherland by the Dutch Republic at Fort Amsterdam in 1664, and the population of New York would continue to expand more so by in-migration by families from New England (including Rhode Island) in the 18th century rather than from natural increase.[32][33][34]

Despite the initial Puritan mass migration also having a 2:1 male sex-imbalance like the British colonization of the Chesapeake Colonies,[35][36] unlike the Southern Colonies in the 17th century, most Puritan immigrants to New England migrated as families (as approximately two-thirds of the male Puritan immigrants to New England were married rather than unmarried indentured servants),[30][36] and in late 17th century New England, 3 percent of the population was over the age of 65 (while only 1 percent in the Chesapeake was in 1704).[37] By the American Revolutionary War, only 2 percent of the New England colonial labor force were bonded or convict laborers and another 2 percent were black slaves, while 9 percent of the colonial black population in New England were free persons of color (as compared with only 3 percent in the Southern Colonies).[31][38] In February 1784, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a gradual emancipation law that increased the ratio of the free black population in Rhode Island to 78 percent by the 1790 U.S. Census and that would ultimately eliminate slavery in Rhode Island by 1842.[39][40][41]

See also[edit] American Revolutionary War §Background and political developments. The 1772 Gaspee Affair in sequence and strategic context. British America List of colonial governors of Rhode Island Notes[edit] ^ Franklin, Wayne (2012). New York, The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W W Norton & Company. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-393-93476-2 ^ "Prudence Island Light". History. lighthouse.cc. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Bicknell, Thomas Williams (1920). The History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 3. New York: The American Historical Society. pp. 975–976. ^ Paul Edward Parker (October 31, 2010). "How 'Providence Plantations' and Rhode Island were joined". The Providence Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ "A Chronological History of Remarkable Events, in the Settlement and Growth of Providence". Rhode Island USGenWeb Project (scan by Susan Pieroth; transcription by Kathleen Beilstein). 2002. Archived from the original on January 14, 2005. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b c Mudge, Zachariah Atwell (1871). Foot-Prints of Roger Williams: A Biography, with Sketches of Important Events in Early New England History, with Which He Was Connected. Hitchocok & Waldon. Sunday-School Department. ISBN 1270833367. ^ Jump up to: a b c Straus, Oscar Solomon (1936). Roger Williams: The Pioneer of Religious Liberty. Ayer Co Pub. ISBN 9780836955866. ^ "Rhode Island and Roger Williams" in Chronicles of America ^ Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University, 1913. Chapter 5. See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ Archived September 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ^ "America's First Anti-Slavery Statute Was Passed in 1652. Here's Why It Was Ignored". Time. Retrieved December 14, 2020. ^ Michael Tougias (1997). "King Philip's War in New England". King Philip's War : The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict. historyplace.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2010. ^ Labaree, pp. 94, 111–113 ^ Lovejoy, pp. 247, 249 ^ "The Unrighteous Traffick", in The Providence Journal Sunday, March 12, 2006. Archived September 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ^ "The May 4, 1776, Act of Renunciation". State of Rhode Island. Retrieved May 3, 2014. ^ Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6. ^ "Letter from Certain Citizens of Rhode Island to the Federal Convention". Ashland, Ohio: TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Retrieved October 21, 2015. ^ Flexner, James Thomas (1984). Washington, The Indispensable Man. New York: Signet. pp. 208. ISBN 0-451-12890-7. ^ Vile, John R. (2005). The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding (Volume 1: A-M). ABC-CLIO. p. 658. ISBN 1-85109-669-8. Retrieved October 21, 2015. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cady, pp. 1-31 ^ Jump up to: a b c Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 142. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. p. 1168. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 227. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. pp. 259–260. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 213. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 181. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 198. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 133. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 126. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 148. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 150. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 250. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 153. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. p. 164. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-0816025275. ^ Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 161. ISBN 978-0816025282. ^ "Slavery in Rhode Island". Slavery in the North. Retrieved May 24, 2020. ^ "Slavery in the North". Slavery in the North. Retrieved May 24, 2020. ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay. HISTORICAL CENSUS STATISTICS ON POPULATION TOTALS BY RACE, 1790 TO 1990, AND BY HISPANIC ORIGIN, 1970 TO 1990, FOR THE UNITED STATES, REGIONS, DIVISIONS, AND STATES (PDF) (Report). United States Census Bureau. p. 72. Retrieved May 24, 2020. References[edit] Arnold, Samuel Greene (1859). History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations vol 1 1636–1700. Applewood Books. ISBN 9781429022774. James, Sydney V. Colonial Rhode Island: A History (1975.) Cady, John Hutchins (1936). Rhode Island Boundaries 1636-1936. Rhode Island Tercentary Commission. Labaree, Benjamin (1979). Colonial Massachusetts: a History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press. ISBN 978-0-527-18714-9. OCLC 248194957. Lovejoy, David (1987). The Glorious Revolution in America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6177-0. OCLC 14212813. hidevte Colonial Governors of Rhode Island Judges of Portsmouth (1638–1640) Coddington Hutchinson

Judge of Newport (1639–1640) Coddington Governor of Newport and Portsmouth (1640–1647) Coddington Chief Officer (Providence and Warwick) (1644–1647) Williams Presidents of Rhode Island (Patent of 1644) (1647–1663) Coggeshall J. Clarke Smith N. Easton Gorton Smith Dexter N. Easton Williams Arnold Brenton Arnold Governors of Newport and Portsmouth (Coddington Commission) (1651–1654) Coddington J. Sanford Governors of Rhode Island (Royal Charter of 1663) (1663–1686) Arnold Brenton Arnold N. Easton Coddington W. Clarke Arnold Coddington J. Cranston P. Sanford Coddington Jr. Bull W. Clarke Governors under Dominion of New England (1686–1689) Dudley Andros Governors of Rhode Island (Royal Charter of 1663) (1690–1776) Bull J. Easton Carr W. Clarke S. Cranston Jenckes W. Wanton John Wanton R. Ward Greene G. Wanton Greene G. Wanton Greene Hopkins Greene Hopkins S. Ward Hopkins S. Ward Hopkins Lyndon Joseph Wanton Cooke Italics Gorton, Smith and Dexter were presidents of Providence and Warwick only, since Coddington had received a commission to remove Newport and Portsmouth from their jurisdiction, valid from 1651 to 1654; before and after these dates the President presided over all four towns of the colony. Dudley presided over the "Narragansett Country" only, later to become Washington County, Rhode Island; Andros subsequently presided over the entire colony. hidevte

Thirteen Colonies

New England Colonies Middle Colonies Chesapeake Colonies Tobacco Colonies Southern Colonies Virginia (1607–1776) New Hampshire (1629–1641; 1679–1686; 1689–1776) Maryland (1632–1776) Connecticut (1636–1776) Rhode Island (1636–1776) Delaware (1664–1776) New Jersey (1664–1673; 1702–1776) New York (1664–1776) Pennsylvania (1681–1776) Massachusetts Bay (1691–1776) North Carolina (1712–1776) South Carolina (1712–1776) Georgia (1732–1776) Other British colonial entities in the contemporary United States Roanoke (1585–1590) Popham (1607–1608) Jamestown (1607–1699) Plymouth (1620–1686; 1689–1691) Maine (1622–1658) Saint Croix (1625–1650) Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629–1686; 1689–1691) Carolina (1629–1712) Saybrook (1635–1644) New Haven (1638–1664) New England Confederation (1643–1654; 1675–c. 1680) Rupert's Land (1670–1811) North-Western Territory (1670–1870) East Jersey (1674–1702) West Jersey (1674–1702) Dominion of New England (1686–1689) Indian Reserve (1763–1783) Quebec (1763–1783) East Florida (1763–1783) West Florida (1763–1783) New Ireland (1779–1783; 1814–1815) Columbia District (1810–1846) Red River Colony (1811–1818) Stickeen Territories (1862–1863) Colony of British Columbia (1863–1866) Colony of British Columbia and Vancouver Island (1866–1871) Province of British Columbia (1871–1903) Non-British colonial entities in the contemporary United States Columbian Viceroyalty (1492–1535) New Spain 1521–1821; Spanish Florida, 1565–1763 New Navarre, 1565–1821 Captaincy General of the Philippines, 1565–1898 Captaincy General of Puerto Rico, 1580–1898 Santa Fe de Nuevo México, 1598–1821 Captaincy General of Cuba, 1607–1801 Spanish Saint Croix, 1650–1651 Spanish Texas, 1690–1821 Las Californias, 1767–1804 Spanish Louisiana, 1769–1801 Provincias Internas, 1776–1821 Spanish East Florida, 1783–1821 Spanish West Florida, 1783–1821 Alta California, 1804–1821 New France 1534–1763; French Florida, 1562–1565 Hospitaller Saint Croix, 1651–1665 French Saint Croix, 1665–1733 French Louisiana, 1682–1763 and 1801–1803 New Netherland (1614–1667) Dutch Virgin Islands (1625–1672) New Sweden (1638–1655) Danish West Indies (1672–1917) Brandenburger Saint Thomas (1685–1754) Krabbeninsel (1689–1693) Scottish Darien Company (1698) Russian America (1799–1867) German New Guinea (1884–1919) Category Category hidevte

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Culture:Anglosphere show Europe showvte Africa showvte Asia showvte North America showvte Oceania show South America show Antarctica and the South Atlantic Historical flags of the British Empire

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British Empire portalMonarchy portalRhode Island portalNorth America portal hide Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General Integrated Authority File (Germany) National libraries United States Coordinates: 41.544°N 71.377°W Categories: Colonial Rhode IslandColonial United States (British)Dominion of New EnglandFormer British colonies and protectorates in the AmericasFormer English coloniesPre-statehood history of Rhode IslandStates and territories established in 16361776 disestablishments in the British EmpireColonial settlements in North America1636 establishments in the British EmpireThirteen Colonies Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

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Copy and Paste Fourteen[]

Sue Limb From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Sue Limb (born 1946,[citation needed] Hitchin, Hertfordshire) is a British writer and broadcaster.


Contents 1 Biography 2 Personal life 3 Works 4 References 5 External links Biography[edit] Limb was born in Hitchin, Hertfordshire.[citation needed] She studied Elizabethan lyric poetry at Newnham College, Cambridge and then trained in education.[citation needed]

While her first published book was a biography of the Antarctic explorer Captain Lawrence Oates co-authored with Patrick Cordingley, later works are predominantly novels – many of them for young adults – and comedies for radio and television, often with a literary or historical setting.[citation needed]

Limb's debut novel Up the Garden Path was adapted as a BBC Radio 4 sitcom,[1][2] and subsequently made the transition to ITV television.[3][4]

For Radio 4, she has written a number of comedy series (which pay unusual attention to music and sound-effects): The Wordsmiths at Gorsemere (a pastiche of the poet William Wordsworth and his circle at Grasmere, two series), The Sit Crom (set in the English Civil War), Four Joneses and a Jenkins (a reference to Four Weddings and a Funeral); Alison and Maud; and most recently Gloomsbury, "a rhapsody about bohemians", about members of the Bloomsbury Group and starring Miriam Margolyes and Alison Steadman.

Other works include Growing Pains (a documentary about ageing), Hilaire Belloc, Cities (six programmes of literary anthology).[5] and the introduction to her Newnham contemporary Valerie Grosvenor Myer's biography of Harriette Wilson.

Under the name Dulcie Domum, Limb wrote Bad Housekeeping, a humorous weekly column in The Guardian's Weekend section between 1988[6] and 2001.[7] Collections of the columns, a feminist novelist's diaries of a rural idyll gone wrong, were published in book form. The books, reissued by Solidus Press in 2002, are listed below. In 1989, as Domum, Limb coined the term "bonkbuster", a play on "blockbuster" and the verb "to bonk", British slang for sexual intercourse. In 2002 the Oxford English Dictionary recognized this portmanteau, defining it as "a type of popular novel characterized by frequent explicit sexual encounters between the characters."[8] Limb commented on the honour, "It's an unexpected event. People keep telling me I've made my place in history, so I can die happily now."[9]

Personal life[edit] She was briefly married in 1970, being the first of the five wives of the historian, Professor Roy Porter.[citation needed]

She lives on an organic farm near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire.[citation needed]

Works[edit] Captain Oates, Soldier and Explorer (with Patrick Cordingley), Batsford, 1982, ISBN 0-7134-2693-4 Up the Garden Path, Transworld, 1984, ISBN 0-370-30595-7 Love Forty, Transworld, 1986 The Wordsmiths at Gorsemere]], Bantam, 1987, ISBN 0-593-01296-8 Chicken Mission, Orchard, 1988, ISBN 1-86039-081-1 Tree Trouble, Orchard, 1988, ISBN 1-85213-096-2 Love's Labours, Transworld, 1989, ISBN 0-7278-5253-1 Me Jane, Orchard, 1989, ISBN 1-86039-084-6 Big Trouble, Orchard, 1990, ISBN 1-85213-097-0 Dulcie Domum's Bad Housekeeping, Fourth Estate (reissued by Solidus Press 2002), 1990, ISBN 1-872180-27-2 Sheep's Eyes and Hogwash, Heinemann, 1992, ISBN 0-434-42446-3 More Bad Housekeeping, Fourth Estate (reissued by Solidus Press 2002), 1992, ISBN 1-85702-151-7 Come Back, Grandma, Red Fox, 1993, ISBN 0-09-921951-4 Dulcie Dishes the Dirt, Fourth Estate (reissued by Solidus Press 2002), 1994, ISBN 1-85702-236-X Passion Fruit, Heinemann, 1995, ISBN 0-434-00278-X Enlightenment, Heinemann, 1997, ISBN 0-434-00280-1 Dulcie Goes Native, Severn House (reissued by Solidus Press 2002), 1998, ISBN 0-9543377-9-4 Big and Little (novel)|Big and Little, Orchard, 1999, ISBN 1-85213-073-3 You At The Back Stop Laughing, Beaver Books, 1999, ISBN 0-09-942670-6 China Lee (reissued as You're Amazing, Mr Jupiter), Orchard, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84362-614-5 Girl, 15, Charming But Insane, Bloomsbury, 2004, ISBN 0-7475-7185-6 Girl (Nearly) 16: Absolute Torture, Bloomsbury, 2005, ISBN 0-7475-7562-2 Girl 16: Pants on Fire, Bloomsbury, 2006, ISBN 0-7475-8216-5 Ruby Rogers is a Waste of Space, Bloomsbury, 2006, ISBN 0-7475-8321-8 Ruby Rogers: Yeah Whatever..., Bloomsbury, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7475-8322-6 Girl, 15, Flirting for England, Bloomsbury, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7475-8477-3 Zoe and Chloe: On the Prowl, Bloomsbury, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7475-8272-4 Ruby Rogers is a Walking Legend, Bloomsbury, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7475-8323-3 Girl, 16, Five-Star Fiasco, Bloomsbury, 2010 Chocolate SOS, Bloomsbury, 2012 References[edit] ^ BBC Media Centre - Up The Garden Path Accessed 2016-10-29. ^ BBC Radio Four Extra - Up The Garden Path Accessed 2016-10-29. ^ IMDB - Up The Garden Path Accessed 2016-10-29. ^ ITV Studios - Up The Garden Path Accessed 2016-10-29. ^ Biography at Sue Limb's website (undated). Accessed: 2007-09-01, ^ The Guardian, 27 November 2004.Accessed: 2007-09-01. ^ Bloomsbury Press Archived 10 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2007-09-01. ^ The Telegraph, 18 February 2002[dead link] Accessed 2007-11-11. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, 19 June 2002 Accessed 2007-11-11. External links[edit] Sue Limb's website A Bad Housekeeping column by Limb (as 'Dulcie Domum') in Guardian Weekend, The Guardian, London, 31 March 2001 hide Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 1 VIAF 1 WorldCat National libraries Spain France (data) United States Czech Republic Netherlands Other SUDOC (France) 1 Trove (Australia) 1 Categories: 1946 birthsAlumni of Newnham College, CambridgeEnglish women writersLiving peoplePeople from Hitchin Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

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Copy and Paste Fifteen[]

Robert Maxwell From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For other people named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). Robert Maxwell MC Robert Maxwell 1989.jpg Maxwell at the Global Economic Panel in Amsterdam (1989) Member of Parliament for Buckingham In office 15 October 1964 – 29 May 1970 Preceded by Frank Markham Succeeded by William Benyon Personal details Born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch 10 June 1923 Slatinské Doly, Czechoslovakia (now Solotvyno, Ukraine) Died 5 November 1991 (aged 68) Sea around the Canary Islands, Spain Resting place Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery, Jerusalem Citizenship Czechoslovak British (since 1946) Political party Labour Spouse(s) Elisabeth Meynard ​(m. 1945)​ Children 9, including Christine, Isabel, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine Occupation Publishermedia proprietor Military service Allegiance Czechoslovakia United Kingdom Branch/service Czechoslovak Army British Army Years of service 1940–1945 Rank Captain Battles/wars World War II Awards Military Cross Ian Robert Maxwell MC (born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch; 10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a British media proprietor, former member of Parliament (MP), suspected spy, and fraudster.[1] Originally from Czechoslovakia, Maxwell rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire. After his death, huge discrepancies in his companies' finances were revealed, including his fraudulent misappropriation of the Mirror Group pension fund.[2]

Early in his life, Maxwell, then an Orthodox Jew, escaped from Nazi occupation, joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile during World War II and was decorated after active service in the British Army. In subsequent years he worked in publishing, building up Pergamon Press to a major publishing house. After six years as a Labour MP during the 1960s, Maxwell again put all his energy into business, successively buying the British Printing Corporation, Mirror Group Newspapers and Macmillan Publishers, among other publishing companies.

Maxwell had a flamboyant lifestyle, living in Headington Hill Hall in Oxford, from which he often flew in his helicopter, or his luxury yacht, the Lady Ghislaine. He was litigious and often embroiled in controversy. In 1989, Maxwell had to sell successful businesses, including Pergamon Press, to cover some of his debts. In 1991, his body was discovered floating in the Atlantic Ocean, having apparently fallen overboard from his yacht. He was buried in Jerusalem.

Maxwell's death triggered the collapse of his publishing empire as banks called in loans. His sons briefly attempted to keep the business together, but failed as the news emerged that the elder Maxwell had stolen hundreds of millions of pounds from his own companies' pension funds. The Maxwell companies applied for bankruptcy protection in 1992.


Contents 1 Early life 2 Pergamon lost and regained 3 Later business activities 4 Israeli controversy 4.1 1948 war 4.2 Mossad allegations; Vanunu case 5 Death 6 Aftermath: discovery of pension funds theft and collapse of a publishing empire 7 Family 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early life[edit] Robert Maxwell was born into a poor Yiddish-speaking Orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly, in the region of Carpathian Ruthenia, Czechoslovakia (now Solotvyno, Ukraine).[3][4][5] His parents were Mechel Hoch and Hannah Slomowitz. He had six siblings. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary. Most members of Maxwell's family died in Auschwitz after Hungary was occupied in 1944 by Nazi Germany, but he had years earlier escaped to France.[3] In May 1940, he joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in Marseille.[6]

After the fall of France and the British retreat to Britain, Maxwell (using the name "Ivan du Maurier",[7] or "Leslie du Maurier",[8] the surname taken from the name of a popular cigarette brand) took part in a protest against the leadership of the Czechoslovak Army, and with 500 other soldiers he was transferred to the Pioneer Corps and later to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He was then involved in action across Europe, from the Normandy beaches to Berlin, and achieved the rank of sergeant.[3] Maxwell gained a commission in 1945 and was promoted to the rank of captain.

In January 1945, Maxwell's heroism in "storming a German machine-gun nest" during the war won him the Military Cross, presented by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.[9] Attached to the Foreign Office, he served in Berlin during the next two years in the press section.[5] Maxwell naturalised as a British subject on 19 June 1946[10] and changed his name by deed of change of name on 30 June 1948.[11]

In 1945, Maxwell married Elisabeth "Betty" Meynard, a French Protestant, and the couple had nine children over the next 16 years: Michael, Philip, Ann, Christine, Isabel, Karine, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine.[12] In a 1995 interview, Elisabeth talked of how they were recreating his childhood family who were killed in the Holocaust.[13] Five of his children – Christine, Isabel, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine – were later employed within his companies. His daughter Karine died of leukaemia at age three, while Michael was severely injured in a car crash in 1961, at the age of 15, when his driver fell asleep at the wheel. Michael never regained consciousness and died seven years later.[14][15][16][17]

After the war, Maxwell used contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and US distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951, he bought three-quarters of Butterworth-Springer, a minor publisher; the remaining quarter was held by the experienced scientific editor Paul Rosbaud.[18] They changed the name of the company to Pergamon Press and rapidly built it into a major publishing house.

In 1964, representing the Labour Party, Maxwell was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Buckingham and re-elected in 1966. He gave an interview to The Times in 1968, in which he said the House of Commons provided him with a problem. "I can't get on with men", he commented. "I tried having male assistants at first. But it didn't work. They tend to be too independent. Men like to have individuality. Women can become an extension of the boss."[19] Maxwell lost his seat in 1970 to Conservative challenger William Benyon. He contested Buckingham again in both 1974 general elections, but without success.

At the beginning of 1969, it emerged that Maxwell's attempt to buy the tabloid newspaper News of the World had failed.[20] The Carr family, which owned the title, was incensed at the thought of a Czechoslovak immigrant with socialist politics gaining ownership, and the board voted against Maxwell's bid without any dissent. The News of the World's editor, Stafford Somerfield, opposed Maxwell's bid in an October 1968 front page opinion piece, in which he referred to Maxwell's Czechoslovak origins and used his birth name.[21] He wrote, "This is a British paper, run by British people ... as British as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding ... Let us keep it that way".[22] The paper was later purchased by Australian tycoon Rupert Murdoch, who later that year acquired The Sun, which had also previously interested Maxwell.[23]

Pergamon lost and regained[edit] In 1969, Saul Steinberg, head of "Leasco Data Processing Corporation", was interested in a strategic acquisition of Pergamon Press. Steinberg claimed that during negotiations, Maxwell falsely stated that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was extremely profitable.[24][25] At the same time, Pergamon had been forced to reduce its profit forecasts for 1969 from £2.5 million to £2.05 million during the period of negotiations, and dealing in Pergamon shares was suspended on the London stock markets.[25]

Maxwell subsequently lost control of Pergamon and was expelled from the board in October 1969, along with three other directors in sympathy with him, by the majority owners of the company's shares.[26] Steinberg purchased Pergamon. An inquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) under the Takeover Code of the time reported was conducted by Rondle Owen Charles Stable and Sir Ronald Leach in mid-1971.[27][5] The report concluded: "We regret having to conclude that, notwithstanding Mr Maxwell's acknowledged abilities and energy, he is not in our opinion a person who can be relied on to exercise proper stewardship of a publicly quoted company."[28][29] It was found that Maxwell had contrived to maximise Pergamon's share price through transactions between his private family companies.[24]

At the same time, the United States Congress was investigating Leasco's takeover practices. Judge Thayne Forbes in September 1971 was critical of the inquiry: "They had moved from an inquisitorial role to accusatory one and virtually committed the business murder of Mr. Maxwell." He further continued that the trial judge would probably find that the inspectors had acted "contrary to the rules of natural justice".[30] The company performed poorly under Steinberg; Maxwell reacquired Pergamon in 1974 after borrowing funds.[31]

Maxwell established the Maxwell Foundation in Liechtenstein in 1970. He acquired the British Printing Corporation (BPC) in 1981 and changed its name first to the British Printing and Communication Corporation (BPCC) and then to the Maxwell Communications Corporation (MCC). The company was later sold in a management buyout and is now known as Polestar.

Later business activities[edit] In July 1984, Maxwell acquired Mirror Group Newspapers, the publisher of six British newspapers, including the Daily Mirror, from Reed International plc.[32] for £113 million.[33] This led to the famous media war between Maxwell and Murdoch, the proprietor of the News of the World and The Sun.

Mirror Group Newspapers (formerly Trinity Mirror, now part of Reach plc), published the Daily Mirror, a pro-Labour tabloid; Sunday Mirror; Sunday People; Scottish Sunday Mail and Scottish Daily Record. At a press conference to publicise his acquisition, Maxwell said his editors would be "free to produce the news without interference".[32] Meanwhile, at a meeting of Maxwell's new employees, Mirror journalist Joe Haines asserted that he was able to prove that their boss "is a crook and a liar".[34][35] Haines quickly came under Maxwell's influence and later wrote his authorised biography.[34]

In June 1985 Maxwell announced a takeover of Clive Sinclair's ailing home computer company, Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a Pergamon subsidiary.[36] The deal was aborted in August 1985.[37] In 1987 Maxwell purchased part of IPC Media to create Fleetway Publications. The same year he launched the London Daily News in February after a delay caused by production problems, but the paper closed in July after sustaining significant losses contemporary estimates put at £25 million.[38] At first intended to be a rival to the Evening Standard, Maxwell had made a rash decision for it to be the first 24-hour paper as well.[39]

By 1988 Maxwell's various companies owned, in addition to the Mirror titles and Pergamon Press, Nimbus Records, Maxwell Directories, Prentice Hall Information Services and the Berlitz language schools. He also owned a half-share of MTV in Europe and other European television interests, Maxwell Cable TV and Maxwell Entertainment.[31] Maxwell purchased Macmillan Publishers, the American firm, for $2.6 billion in 1988. In the same year, he launched an ambitious new project, a transnational newspaper called The European. In 1991 Maxwell was forced to sell Pergamon and Maxwell Directories to Elsevier for £440 million to cover his debts;[31] he used some of this money to buy an ailing tabloid, the New York Daily News. The same year Maxwell sold 49 percent of the stock of Mirror Group Newspapers to the public.[5]

Maxwell's links with Eastern European totalitarian regimes resulted in several biographies[40] of those countries' leaders, with interviews conducted by Maxwell, for which he received much derision.[5] At the beginning of an interview with Romania's Nicolae Ceaușescu, then the country's communist leader, he asked, "How do you account for your enormous popularity with the Romanian people?"[41]


Global Economic Panel April 1989 in Amsterdam: Wisse Dekker, minister Hans van den Broek, Henry Kissinger and Robert Maxwell.

For the last 32 years of his life, Robert Maxwell lived at Headington Hill Hall, which he rented from Oxford City Council and described as "the best council house" in the country.[42] It is now part of Oxford Brookes University. Maxwell was also the chairman of Oxford United, saving them from bankruptcy and attempting to merge them with Reading in 1983 to form a club he wished to call "Thames Valley Royals". He took Oxford into the top flight of English football in 1985 and the team won the League Cup a year later. Maxwell bought into Derby County in 1987. He also attempted to buy Manchester United in 1984, but refused owner Martin Edwards's asking price.

A bugged version of the intelligence spy software PROMIS was sold in the mid-1980s for Soviet government use, with Robert Maxwell as a conduit.[43]

Maxwell was known to be litigious against those who would speak or write against him. The satirical magazine Private Eye lampooned him as "Cap'n Bob" and the "bouncing Czech",[44] the latter nickname having originally been devised by Prime Minister Harold Wilson[45] (under whom Maxwell was an MP). Maxwell took out several libel actions against Private Eye, one resulting in the magazine losing an estimated £225,000 and Maxwell using his commercial power to hit back with a one-off spoof magazine Not Private Eye.[46]

Israeli controversy[edit] 1948 war[edit] A hint of Maxwell's service to Israel was provided by John Loftus and Mark Aarons, who described Maxwell's contacts with Czechoslovak communist leaders in 1948 as crucial to the Czechoslovak decision to arm Israel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Czechoslovak military assistance was both unique and crucial for the fledgling state as it battled for its existence. According to Loftus and Aarons, it was Maxwell's covert help in smuggling aircraft parts into Israel that led to the country having air superiority during their 1948 war of independence.[47]

Mossad allegations; Vanunu case[edit] The Foreign Office suspected that Maxwell was a secret agent of a foreign government, possibly a double agent or a triple agent, and "a thoroughly bad character and almost certainly financed by Russia". He had known links to the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), to the Soviet KGB, and to the Israeli intelligence service Mossad.[48] Six serving and former heads of Israeli intelligence services attended Maxwell's funeral in Israel, while Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir eulogised him and stated: "He has done more for Israel than can today be told."[49]

Shortly before Maxwell's death, a former employee of Israel's Military Intelligence Directorate, Ari Ben-Menashe, approached a number of news organisations in Britain and the US with the allegation that Maxwell and the Daily Mirror's foreign editor, Nicholas Davies, were both long-time agents for Mossad. Ben-Menashe also claimed that, in 1986, Maxwell informed the Israeli Embassy in London that Mordechai Vanunu revealed information about Israel's nuclear capability to The Sunday Times, then to the Daily Mirror. Vanunu was subsequently kidnapped by Mossad and smuggled to Israel, convicted of treason and imprisoned for eighteen years.[50]

Ben-Menashe's story was ignored at first, but eventually journalist Seymour Hersh of The New Yorker repeated some of the allegations during a press conference in London held to publicise The Samson Option, Hersh's book about Israel's nuclear weapons.[51] On 21 October 1991, Labour MP George Galloway and Conservative MP Rupert Allason (also known as espionage author Nigel West) agreed to raise the issue in the House of Commons under parliamentary privilege protection,[a] which in turn allowed British newspapers to report events without fear of libel suits. Maxwell called the claims "ludicrous, a total invention" and sacked Davies.[52] A year later, in Galloway's libel settlement against Mirror Group Newspapers (in which he received "substantial" damages), Galloway's counsel announced that the MP accepted that the group's staff had not been involved in Vanunu's abduction. Galloway referred to Maxwell as "one of the worst criminals of the century".[53]

Death[edit] On 4 November 1991, Maxwell had an argumentative phone call with his son Kevin over a meeting scheduled with the Bank of England on Maxwell's default on £50,000,000 in loans. Maxwell missed the meeting, instead travelling to his yacht, the Lady Ghislaine, in the Canary Islands, Spain.[9]

On 5 November, Maxwell was last in contact with the crew of Lady Ghislaine at 4:25 a.m. local time, but was found to be missing later in the morning.[52] It has been speculated that Maxwell was urinating into the ocean nude at the time, as he often did.[9] He was presumed to have fallen overboard from the vessel, which was cruising off the Canary Islands, southwest Spain.[52][54] Maxwell's naked body was recovered from the Atlantic Ocean and taken to Las Palmas.[50] Besides a "graze to his left shoulder", there were no noticeable wounds on Maxwell's body.[9] The official ruling at an inquest held in December 1991 was death by a heart attack combined with accidental drowning,[55] although three pathologists had been unable to agree on the cause of his death at the inquest;[50] he had been found to have been suffering from serious heart and lung conditions.[56] Murder was ruled out by the judge and, in effect, so was suicide.[55] His son discounted the possibility of suicide, saying, "I think it is highly unlikely that he would have taken his own life, it wasn't in his makeup or his mentality."[9]

Maxwell was afforded a lavish funeral in Israel, attended by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Israeli President Chaim Herzog, at least six serving and former heads of Israeli intelligence[57] and many dignitaries and politicians (both government and opposition), and was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.[58][59][60] Herzog delivered the eulogy and the Kaddish was recited by his fellow Holocaust survivor, friend and longtime attorney Samuel Pisar.[61]

British Prime Minister John Major said Maxwell had given him "valuable insights" into the situation in the Soviet Union during the attempted coup of 1991. He was a "great character", Major added. Neil Kinnock, then Labour Party leader, spoke of him as a man with "a zest for life" who "attracted controversy, envy and loyalty in great measure throughout his rumbustious life."

A production crew conducting research for Maxwell, a 2007 biographical film by the BBC, uncovered tapes stored in a suitcase owned by his former head of security, John Pole. Later in his life, Maxwell had become increasingly paranoid about his own employees and had the offices of those he suspected of disloyalty bugged so he could hear their conversations. After Maxwell's death, the tapes remained in Pole's suitcase and were discovered by the researchers only in 2007.[62]

Aftermath: discovery of pension funds theft and collapse of a publishing empire[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Robert Maxwell" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Maxwell's death triggered instability for his publishing empire, with banks frantically calling in their massive loans. Despite the efforts of his sons Kevin and Ian, the Maxwell companies soon collapsed. It emerged that, without adequate prior authorisation, Maxwell had used hundreds of millions of pounds from his companies' pension funds to shore up the shares of the Mirror Group to save his companies from bankruptcy.[63] Eventually, the pension funds were replenished with money from investment banks Shearson Lehman and Goldman Sachs, as well as the British government.[64] This replenishment was limited and also supported by a surplus in the printers' fund, which was taken by the government in part payment of £100 million required to support the workers' state pensions. The rest of the £100 million was waived. Maxwell's theft of pension funds was therefore partly repaid from public funds. The result was that in general, pensioners received about half of their company pension entitlement.

The Maxwell companies filed for bankruptcy protection in 1992. Kevin Maxwell was declared bankrupt with debts of £400 million. In 1995, Kevin, Ian and two other former directors went on trial for conspiracy to defraud, but were unanimously acquitted by a twelve-person jury the following year.

Family[edit] In November 1994, Maxwell's widow Elisabeth published her memoirs, A Mind of My Own: My Life with Robert Maxwell,[65] which sheds light on her life with him, when the publishing magnate was ranked as one of the richest people in the world.[66] Having earned her degree from Oxford University in 1981, Elisabeth devoted much of her later life to continued research on the Holocaust and worked as a proponent of Jewish-Christian dialogue. She died on 7 August 2013.[67]

In July 2020, Maxwell's youngest child, his daughter Ghislaine Maxwell, was arrested and charged in New Hampshire, US, with six federal crimes, involving minors' trade, travel and seducing to engage in criminal sexual activity, and conspiracy to entice children to engage in illegal sex acts, allegedly linked to her regular activity with a sex-trafficking ring with and for the equally arrested and charged therein Jeffrey Epstein (who had already died in jail the previous year).[68]

In popular culture[edit] Maxwell, in addition to Ted Turner and Rupert Murdoch, was used as inspiration for the villainous media baron Elliot Carver in the 1997 James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies as well as its novelisation and video game adaptation.[69][70] At the film's conclusion, M orders a story spun disguising Carver's demise, saying that Carver is believed to have committed suicide by jumping off his yacht in the South China Sea. A BBC drama, Maxwell, covering his life shortly before his death, starring David Suchet and Patricia Hodge, was aired on 4 May 2007.[71] Suchet won the International Emmy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Maxwell.[72] A one-person show about Maxwell's life, Lies Have Been Told, written by Rod Beacham, was performed by Phillip York at London's Trafalgar Studios in 2006.[73] The Fourth Estate, a 1996 novel by Jeffrey Archer, is based on the lives of Robert Maxwell and Rupert Murdoch.[74] Max, a novel by Juval Aviv, is based on Aviv's investigation into the death of Robert Maxwell.[75] Maxwell pressured Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev to cancel the contract between Elorg and Nintendo concerning the rights to the game Tetris.[76] In the 1992 final series of British sitcom The New Statesman, a recurring joke is Alan B'Stard's knowledge that Maxwell faked his death and is still alive. In the fourth episode, B'Stard visits war-torn Herzegovina, ostensibly to negotiate a peace treaty, but his plan all along has been to smuggle Maxwell out of the country to a luxury hideaway, in return for a handsome slice of the Mirror Group funds. It transpires, however, that Maxwell has already spent the money, and the episode ends with a vengeful B'Stard giving him 'an amazing deja-vu experience' - pushing him over the side of his yacht, where he presumably dies. See also[edit] Daily News (Perth, Western Australia) § Later years Ghislaine Maxwell List of people who disappeared mysteriously at sea Maxwell Communication Corporation Maxwellisation Scottish Daily News Notes[edit] ^ Parliamentary privilege allows MPs to ask questions in Parliament without risk of being sued for defamation. References[edit] ^ "Robert Maxwell's sons speak out about their fraudster father". Retrieved 10 December 2019. ^ "A Notorious Fraud – the Robert Maxwell Farrago". Australian Guardians. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2017. ^ Jump up to: a b c Марк Штейнберг. Евреи в войнах тысячелетий. p. 227. ISBN 5-93273-154-0 (in Russian) ^ Иван Мащенко (7–13 September 2002). Медиа-олигарх из Солотвина. Зеркало недели (in Russian) (#34 (409)). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Whitney, Craig R. (6 November 1991). "Robert Maxwell, 68: From Refugee to the Ruthless Builder of a Publishing Empire". The New York Times. p. 5. ^ "Ludvík Hoch (Maxwell) in the database of Central Military Archive in Prague". ^ Walters, Rob (8 December 2009). "Naughty Boys: Ten Rogues of Oxford". google.se. Retrieved 5 July 2015. ^ LLC, Sussex Publishers (May 1988). Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Kirsch, Noah. "Long Before Ghislaine Maxwell Disappeared, Her Mogul Father Died Mysteriously". Forbes. ^ "No. 37658". The London Gazette. 19 July 1946. p. 3739. ^ "No. 38352". The London Gazette. 13 July 1948. p. 4046. ^ Haines, Joe (1988). Maxwell. London: Futura. pp. 434 et seq. ISBN 0-7088-4303-4. ^ Witchell, Alex (15 February 1995). "AT LUNCH WITH: Elisabeth Maxwell; Questions Without Answers". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2013. ^ Maxwell: The final verdict ^ A mind of my own by Elisabeth Maxwell ^ "Free Research Papers – Information Intelligence, 1991". free-researchpapers.com. 28 March 1999. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. ^ Rampton, James (28 April 2007). "Maxwell was a monster - but much more, too". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 February 2018. ^ Haines (1988) 135 ^ Barwick, Sandra (25 October 1994). "The beast and his beauties". The Independent. ^ "1969: Murdoch wins Fleet Street foothold". BBC. 2 January 1969. ^ Greenslade, Roy (2004) [2003]. Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda. London: Pan. p. 395. ISBN 9780330393768. ^ Grundy, Bill (24 October 1968). "Mr Maxwell and the Ailing Giant". The Spectator. p. 6. ^ "The Maxwell Murdoch tabloid rivalry". BBC News. 5 November 2011. ^ Jump up to: a b Dennis Barker and Christopher Sylvester "The grasshopper", – Obituary of Maxwell, The Guardian, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 19 July 2007. ^ Jump up to: a b Nicholas Davenport "Money Wanted: A Board of Trade inquiry", The Spectator, 29 August 1969, p.24 ^ Nicholas Davenport "Money: The End of the Affair", The Spectator, 17 October 1969, p.22 ^ Stable, Rondle Owen Charles; Leach, Sir Ronald; Industry, Great Britain Department of Trade and (1971). Report on the Affairs of the International Learning Systems Corporation Limited: And Interim Report on the Affairs of Pergamon Press Limited, Investigation Under Section 165(b) of the Companies Act 1948. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-510728-3. ^ Stable, Rondle Owen Charles; Leach, Sir Ronald; Industry, Great Britain Department of Trade and (1971). Report on the Affairs of the International Learning Systems Corporation Limited: And Interim Report on the Affairs of Pergamon Press Limited, Investigation Under Section 165(b) of the Companies Act 1948. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-510728-3. ^ Wearing, Robert (2005). Cases in Corporate Governance. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 1412908779. ^ Betty Maxwell, p. 542 ^ Jump up to: a b c "Robert Maxwell: Overview", keputa.net ^ Jump up to: a b "Briton Buys the Mirror Chain", The New York Times, 14 July 1984 ^ Roy Greenslade Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, London: Pan, 2004 [2003], p.395 ^ Jump up to: a b "Say It Ain't So, Joe", The Spectator, 22 February 1992, p.15 ^ Roy Greenslade Press Gang, p.395 ^ "Sinclair to Sell British Unit". The New York Times. 18 June 1985. Retrieved 4 December 2009. ^ "Sinclair: A Corporate History". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 4 December 2009. ^ "Maxwell Closes London Paper", Glasgow Herald, 25 July 1987, p.3 ^ Duncan Campbell "The London legacy of Cap'n Bob", The Guardian, 28 August 2006 ^ David Ellis and Sidney Urquhart "Maxwell's Hall of Shame", Time, 8 April 1991 ^ Editorial: "Breaking the Spell", The Spectator, 21 December 1991, p.3 ^ "", Headington History ^ "In New French Best-Seller, Software Meets Espionage". ^ Jon Kelly "The strange allure of Robert Maxwell", BBC News, 4 May 2007 ^ Reuters "Murdoch conclusion stirs memories of his old foe Maxwell", Chicago Tribune, 1 May 2012 ^ "Not Private Eye", Tony Quinn, Magforum.com, 6 March 2007 ^ John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews. ^ "FO Suspected Maxwell Was a Russian Agent, Papers Reveal". The Telegraph, 2 November 2003 ^ Gordon Thomas (1999), Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, New York: St. Martin's Press, p. 23 ^ Jump up to: a b c Robert Verkaik "The Mystery of Maxwell's Death", The Independent, 10 March 2006 ^ Hersh, Seymour M. (1991). The Samson Option : Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (1st ed.). New York. pp. 312–15. ISBN 0-394-57006-5. OCLC 24609770. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ben Laurance and John Hooper, et al. "Maxwell's body found in sea", The Guardian, 6 November 1991 ^ "Scottish MP wins libel damages", The Herald (Glasgow), 22 December 1992 ^ "Robert Maxwell: A Profile". BBC News. 29 March 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b Larry Eichel (14 December 1991). "Maxwell's Legacy Of Money Troubles Maxwell's Own Daily Mirror Newspaper Now Routinely Calls Him 'The Cheating Tycoon'". Philadelphia Inquirer ^ Marlise Simons (12 December 1991). "Autopsy Indicates Maxwell Did Not Drown". The New York Times. ^ Gordon Thomas. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, page 210 ^ Clyde Haberman (11 November 1991). "The Media Business; Maxwell Is Buried In Jerusalem", The New York Times. ^ "Israel gives Maxwell farewell fit for hero". The Washington Post, 11 November 1991 ^ "George Galloway sheds light on Maxwell family and its links to Jeffrey Epstein", 23 August 2019 ^ "Maxwell, Colossus Even in Death, Laid to Rest on Mount of Olives", jta.org, 11 November 1991 ^ "BBC reveals secret Maxwell tapes". BBC. 25 April 2007. ^ Prokesch, Steven (24 June 1992). "Maxwell's Mirror Group Has $727.5 Million Loss". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February

Copy and Paste Sixteen[]

Robert Maxwell From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For other people named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). Robert Maxwell MC Robert Maxwell 1989.jpg Maxwell at the Global Economic Panel in Amsterdam (1989) Member of Parliament for Buckingham In office 15 October 1964 – 29 May 1970 Preceded by Frank Markham Succeeded by William Benyon Personal details Born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch 10 June 1923 Slatinské Doly, Czechoslovakia (now Solotvyno, Ukraine) Died 5 November 1991 (aged 68) Sea around the Canary Islands, Spain Resting place Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery, Jerusalem Citizenship Czechoslovak British (since 1946) Political party Labour Spouse(s) Elisabeth Meynard ​(m. 1945)​ Children 9, including Christine, Isabel, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine Occupation Publishermedia proprietor Military service Allegiance Czechoslovakia United Kingdom Branch/service Czechoslovak Army British Army Years of service 1940–1945 Rank Captain Battles/wars World War II Awards Military Cross Ian Robert Maxwell MC (born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch; 10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a British media proprietor, former member of Parliament (MP), suspected spy, and fraudster.[1] Originally from Czechoslovakia, Maxwell rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire. After his death, huge discrepancies in his companies' finances were revealed, including his fraudulent misappropriation of the Mirror Group pension fund.[2]

Early in his life, Maxwell, then an Orthodox Jew, escaped from Nazi occupation, joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile during World War II and was decorated after active service in the British Army. In subsequent years he worked in publishing, building up Pergamon Press to a major publishing house. After six years as a Labour MP during the 1960s, Maxwell again put all his energy into business, successively buying the British Printing Corporation, Mirror Group Newspapers and Macmillan Publishers, among other publishing companies.

Maxwell had a flamboyant lifestyle, living in Headington Hill Hall in Oxford, from which he often flew in his helicopter, or his luxury yacht, the Lady Ghislaine. He was litigious and often embroiled in controversy. In 1989, Maxwell had to sell successful businesses, including Pergamon Press, to cover some of his debts. In 1991, his body was discovered floating in the Atlantic Ocean, having apparently fallen overboard from his yacht. He was buried in Jerusalem.

Maxwell's death triggered the collapse of his publishing empire as banks called in loans. His sons briefly attempted to keep the business together, but failed as the news emerged that the elder Maxwell had stolen hundreds of millions of pounds from his own companies' pension funds. The Maxwell companies applied for bankruptcy protection in 1992.


Contents 1 Early life 2 Pergamon lost and regained 3 Later business activities 4 Israeli controversy 4.1 1948 war 4.2 Mossad allegations; Vanunu case 5 Death 6 Aftermath: discovery of pension funds theft and collapse of a publishing empire 7 Family 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early life[edit] Robert Maxwell was born into a poor Yiddish-speaking Orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly, in the region of Carpathian Ruthenia, Czechoslovakia (now Solotvyno, Ukraine).[3][4][5] His parents were Mechel Hoch and Hannah Slomowitz. He had six siblings. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary. Most members of Maxwell's family died in Auschwitz after Hungary was occupied in 1944 by Nazi Germany, but he had years earlier escaped to France.[3] In May 1940, he joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in Marseille.[6]

After the fall of France and the British retreat to Britain, Maxwell (using the name "Ivan du Maurier",[7] or "Leslie du Maurier",[8] the surname taken from the name of a popular cigarette brand) took part in a protest against the leadership of the Czechoslovak Army, and with 500 other soldiers he was transferred to the Pioneer Corps and later to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He was then involved in action across Europe, from the Normandy beaches to Berlin, and achieved the rank of sergeant.[3] Maxwell gained a commission in 1945 and was promoted to the rank of captain.

In January 1945, Maxwell's heroism in "storming a German machine-gun nest" during the war won him the Military Cross, presented by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.[9] Attached to the Foreign Office, he served in Berlin during the next two years in the press section.[5] Maxwell naturalised as a British subject on 19 June 1946[10] and changed his name by deed of change of name on 30 June 1948.[11]

In 1945, Maxwell married Elisabeth "Betty" Meynard, a French Protestant, and the couple had nine children over the next 16 years: Michael, Philip, Ann, Christine, Isabel, Karine, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine.[12] In a 1995 interview, Elisabeth talked of how they were recreating his childhood family who were killed in the Holocaust.[13] Five of his children – Christine, Isabel, Ian, Kevin and Ghislaine – were later employed within his companies. His daughter Karine died of leukaemia at age three, while Michael was severely injured in a car crash in 1961, at the age of 15, when his driver fell asleep at the wheel. Michael never regained consciousness and died seven years later.[14][15][16][17]

After the war, Maxwell used contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and US distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951, he bought three-quarters of Butterworth-Springer, a minor publisher; the remaining quarter was held by the experienced scientific editor Paul Rosbaud.[18] They changed the name of the company to Pergamon Press and rapidly built it into a major publishing house.

In 1964, representing the Labour Party, Maxwell was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Buckingham and re-elected in 1966. He gave an interview to The Times in 1968, in which he said the House of Commons provided him with a problem. "I can't get on with men", he commented. "I tried having male assistants at first. But it didn't work. They tend to be too independent. Men like to have individuality. Women can become an extension of the boss."[19] Maxwell lost his seat in 1970 to Conservative challenger William Benyon. He contested Buckingham again in both 1974 general elections, but without success.

At the beginning of 1969, it emerged that Maxwell's attempt to buy the tabloid newspaper News of the World had failed.[20] The Carr family, which owned the title, was incensed at the thought of a Czechoslovak immigrant with socialist politics gaining ownership, and the board voted against Maxwell's bid without any dissent. The News of the World's editor, Stafford Somerfield, opposed Maxwell's bid in an October 1968 front page opinion piece, in which he referred to Maxwell's Czechoslovak origins and used his birth name.[21] He wrote, "This is a British paper, run by British people ... as British as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding ... Let us keep it that way".[22] The paper was later purchased by Australian tycoon Rupert Murdoch, who later that year acquired The Sun, which had also previously interested Maxwell.[23]

Pergamon lost and regained[edit] In 1969, Saul Steinberg, head of "Leasco Data Processing Corporation", was interested in a strategic acquisition of Pergamon Press. Steinberg claimed that during negotiations, Maxwell falsely stated that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was extremely profitable.[24][25] At the same time, Pergamon had been forced to reduce its profit forecasts for 1969 from £2.5 million to £2.05 million during the period of negotiations, and dealing in Pergamon shares was suspended on the London stock markets.[25]

Maxwell subsequently lost control of Pergamon and was expelled from the board in October 1969, along with three other directors in sympathy with him, by the majority owners of the company's shares.[26] Steinberg purchased Pergamon. An inquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) under the Takeover Code of the time reported was conducted by Rondle Owen Charles Stable and Sir Ronald Leach in mid-1971.[27][5] The report concluded: "We regret having to conclude that, notwithstanding Mr Maxwell's acknowledged abilities and energy, he is not in our opinion a person who can be relied on to exercise proper stewardship of a publicly quoted company."[28][29] It was found that Maxwell had contrived to maximise Pergamon's share price through transactions between his private family companies.[24]

At the same time, the United States Congress was investigating Leasco's takeover practices. Judge Thayne Forbes in September 1971 was critical of the inquiry: "They had moved from an inquisitorial role to accusatory one and virtually committed the business murder of Mr. Maxwell." He further continued that the trial judge would probably find that the inspectors had acted "contrary to the rules of natural justice".[30] The company performed poorly under Steinberg; Maxwell reacquired Pergamon in 1974 after borrowing funds.[31]

Maxwell established the Maxwell Foundation in Liechtenstein in 1970. He acquired the British Printing Corporation (BPC) in 1981 and changed its name first to the British Printing and Communication Corporation (BPCC) and then to the Maxwell Communications Corporation (MCC). The company was later sold in a management buyout and is now known as Polestar.

Later business activities[edit] In July 1984, Maxwell acquired Mirror Group Newspapers, the publisher of six British newspapers, including the Daily Mirror, from Reed International plc.[32] for £113 million.[33] This led to the famous media war between Maxwell and Murdoch, the proprietor of the News of the World and The Sun.

Mirror Group Newspapers (formerly Trinity Mirror, now part of Reach plc), published the Daily Mirror, a pro-Labour tabloid; Sunday Mirror; Sunday People; Scottish Sunday Mail and Scottish Daily Record. At a press conference to publicise his acquisition, Maxwell said his editors would be "free to produce the news without interference".[32] Meanwhile, at a meeting of Maxwell's new employees, Mirror journalist Joe Haines asserted that he was able to prove that their boss "is a crook and a liar".[34][35] Haines quickly came under Maxwell's influence and later wrote his authorised biography.[34]

In June 1985 Maxwell announced a takeover of Clive Sinclair's ailing home computer company, Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a Pergamon subsidiary.[36] The deal was aborted in August 1985.[37] In 1987 Maxwell purchased part of IPC Media to create Fleetway Publications. The same year he launched the London Daily News in February after a delay caused by production problems, but the paper closed in July after sustaining significant losses contemporary estimates put at £25 million.[38] At first intended to be a rival to the Evening Standard, Maxwell had made a rash decision for it to be the first 24-hour paper as well.[39]

By 1988 Maxwell's various companies owned, in addition to the Mirror titles and Pergamon Press, Nimbus Records, Maxwell Directories, Prentice Hall Information Services and the Berlitz language schools. He also owned a half-share of MTV in Europe and other European television interests, Maxwell Cable TV and Maxwell Entertainment.[31] Maxwell purchased Macmillan Publishers, the American firm, for $2.6 billion in 1988. In the same year, he launched an ambitious new project, a transnational newspaper called The European. In 1991 Maxwell was forced to sell Pergamon and Maxwell Directories to Elsevier for £440 million to cover his debts;[31] he used some of this money to buy an ailing tabloid, the New York Daily News. The same year Maxwell sold 49 percent of the stock of Mirror Group Newspapers to the public.[5]

Maxwell's links with Eastern European totalitarian regimes resulted in several biographies[40] of those countries' leaders, with interviews conducted by Maxwell, for which he received much derision.[5] At the beginning of an interview with Romania's Nicolae Ceaușescu, then the country's communist leader, he asked, "How do you account for your enormous popularity with the Romanian people?"[41]


Global Economic Panel April 1989 in Amsterdam: Wisse Dekker, minister Hans van den Broek, Henry Kissinger and Robert Maxwell.

For the last 32 years of his life, Robert Maxwell lived at Headington Hill Hall, which he rented from Oxford City Council and described as "the best council house" in the country.[42] It is now part of Oxford Brookes University. Maxwell was also the chairman of Oxford United, saving them from bankruptcy and attempting to merge them with Reading in 1983 to form a club he wished to call "Thames Valley Royals". He took Oxford into the top flight of English football in 1985 and the team won the League Cup a year later. Maxwell bought into Derby County in 1987. He also attempted to buy Manchester United in 1984, but refused owner Martin Edwards's asking price.

A bugged version of the intelligence spy software PROMIS was sold in the mid-1980s for Soviet government use, with Robert Maxwell as a conduit.[43]

Maxwell was known to be litigious against those who would speak or write against him. The satirical magazine Private Eye lampooned him as "Cap'n Bob" and the "bouncing Czech",[44] the latter nickname having originally been devised by Prime Minister Harold Wilson[45] (under whom Maxwell was an MP). Maxwell took out several libel actions against Private Eye, one resulting in the magazine losing an estimated £225,000 and Maxwell using his commercial power to hit back with a one-off spoof magazine Not Private Eye.[46]

Israeli controversy[edit] 1948 war[edit] A hint of Maxwell's service to Israel was provided by John Loftus and Mark Aarons, who described Maxwell's contacts with Czechoslovak communist leaders in 1948 as crucial to the Czechoslovak decision to arm Israel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Czechoslovak military assistance was both unique and crucial for the fledgling state as it battled for its existence. According to Loftus and Aarons, it was Maxwell's covert help in smuggling aircraft parts into Israel that led to the country having air superiority during their 1948 war of independence.[47]

Mossad allegations; Vanunu case[edit] The Foreign Office suspected that Maxwell was a secret agent of a foreign government, possibly a double agent or a triple agent, and "a thoroughly bad character and almost certainly financed by Russia". He had known links to the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), to the Soviet KGB, and to the Israeli intelligence service Mossad.[48] Six serving and former heads of Israeli intelligence services attended Maxwell's funeral in Israel, while Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir eulogised him and stated: "He has done more for Israel than can today be told."[49]

Shortly before Maxwell's death, a former employee of Israel's Military Intelligence Directorate, Ari Ben-Menashe, approached a number of news organisations in Britain and the US with the allegation that Maxwell and the Daily Mirror's foreign editor, Nicholas Davies, were both long-time agents for Mossad. Ben-Menashe also claimed that, in 1986, Maxwell informed the Israeli Embassy in London that Mordechai Vanunu revealed information about Israel's nuclear capability to The Sunday Times, then to the Daily Mirror. Vanunu was subsequently kidnapped by Mossad and smuggled to Israel, convicted of treason and imprisoned for eighteen years.[50]

Ben-Menashe's story was ignored at first, but eventually journalist Seymour Hersh of The New Yorker repeated some of the allegations during a press conference in London held to publicise The Samson Option, Hersh's book about Israel's nuclear weapons.[51] On 21 October 1991, Labour MP George Galloway and Conservative MP Rupert Allason (also known as espionage author Nigel West) agreed to raise the issue in the House of Commons under parliamentary privilege protection,[a] which in turn allowed British newspapers to report events without fear of libel suits. Maxwell called the claims "ludicrous, a total invention" and sacked Davies.[52] A year later, in Galloway's libel settlement against Mirror Group Newspapers (in which he received "substantial" damages), Galloway's counsel announced that the MP accepted that the group's staff had not been involved in Vanunu's abduction. Galloway referred to Maxwell as "one of the worst criminals of the century".[53]

Death[edit] On 4 November 1991, Maxwell had an argumentative phone call with his son Kevin over a meeting scheduled with the Bank of England on Maxwell's default on £50,000,000 in loans. Maxwell missed the meeting, instead travelling to his yacht, the Lady Ghislaine, in the Canary Islands, Spain.[9]

On 5 November, Maxwell was last in contact with the crew of Lady Ghislaine at 4:25 a.m. local time, but was found to be missing later in the morning.[52] It has been speculated that Maxwell was urinating into the ocean nude at the time, as he often did.[9] He was presumed to have fallen overboard from the vessel, which was cruising off the Canary Islands, southwest Spain.[52][54] Maxwell's naked body was recovered from the Atlantic Ocean and taken to Las Palmas.[50] Besides a "graze to his left shoulder", there were no noticeable wounds on Maxwell's body.[9] The official ruling at an inquest held in December 1991 was death by a heart attack combined with accidental drowning,[55] although three pathologists had been unable to agree on the cause of his death at the inquest;[50] he had been found to have been suffering from serious heart and lung conditions.[56] Murder was ruled out by the judge and, in effect, so was suicide.[55] His son discounted the possibility of suicide, saying, "I think it is highly unlikely that he would have taken his own life, it wasn't in his makeup or his mentality."[9]

Maxwell was afforded a lavish funeral in Israel, attended by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Israeli President Chaim Herzog, at least six serving and former heads of Israeli intelligence[57] and many dignitaries and politicians (both government and opposition), and was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.[58][59][60] Herzog delivered the eulogy and the Kaddish was recited by his fellow Holocaust survivor, friend and longtime attorney Samuel Pisar.[61]

British Prime Minister John Major said Maxwell had given him "valuable insights" into the situation in the Soviet Union during the attempted coup of 1991. He was a "great character", Major added. Neil Kinnock, then Labour Party leader, spoke of him as a man with "a zest for life" who "attracted controversy, envy and loyalty in great measure throughout his rumbustious life."

A production crew conducting research for Maxwell, a 2007 biographical film by the BBC, uncovered tapes stored in a suitcase owned by his former head of security, John Pole. Later in his life, Maxwell had become increasingly paranoid about his own employees and had the offices of those he suspected of disloyalty bugged so he could hear their conversations. After Maxwell's death, the tapes remained in Pole's suitcase and were discovered by the researchers only in 2007.[62]

Aftermath: discovery of pension funds theft and collapse of a publishing empire[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Robert Maxwell" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Maxwell's death triggered instability for his publishing empire, with banks frantically calling in their massive loans. Despite the efforts of his sons Kevin and Ian, the Maxwell companies soon collapsed. It emerged that, without adequate prior authorisation, Maxwell had used hundreds of millions of pounds from his companies' pension funds to shore up the shares of the Mirror Group to save his companies from bankruptcy.[63] Eventually, the pension funds were replenished with money from investment banks Shearson Lehman and Goldman Sachs, as well as the British government.[64] This replenishment was limited and also supported by a surplus in the printers' fund, which was taken by the government in part payment of £100 million required to support the workers' state pensions. The rest of the £100 million was waived. Maxwell's theft of pension funds was therefore partly repaid from public funds. The result was that in general, pensioners received about half of their company pension entitlement.

The Maxwell companies filed for bankruptcy protection in 1992. Kevin Maxwell was declared bankrupt with debts of £400 million. In 1995, Kevin, Ian and two other former directors went on trial for conspiracy to defraud, but were unanimously acquitted by a twelve-person jury the following year.

Family[edit] In November 1994, Maxwell's widow Elisabeth published her memoirs, A Mind of My Own: My Life with Robert Maxwell,[65] which sheds light on her life with him, when the publishing magnate was ranked as one of the richest people in the world.[66] Having earned her degree from Oxford University in 1981, Elisabeth devoted much of her later life to continued research on the Holocaust and worked as a proponent of Jewish-Christian dialogue. She died on 7 August 2013.[67]

In July 2020, Maxwell's youngest child, his daughter Ghislaine Maxwell, was arrested and charged in New Hampshire, US, with six federal crimes, involving minors' trade, travel and seducing to engage in criminal sexual activity, and conspiracy to entice children to engage in illegal sex acts, allegedly linked to her regular activity with a sex-trafficking ring with and for the equally arrested and charged therein Jeffrey Epstein (who had already died in jail the previous year).[68]

In popular culture[edit] Maxwell, in addition to Ted Turner and Rupert Murdoch, was used as inspiration for the villainous media baron Elliot Carver in the 1997 James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies as well as its novelisation and video game adaptation.[69][70] At the film's conclusion, M orders a story spun disguising Carver's demise, saying that Carver is believed to have committed suicide by jumping off his yacht in the South China Sea. A BBC drama, Maxwell, covering his life shortly before his death, starring David Suchet and Patricia Hodge, was aired on 4 May 2007.[71] Suchet won the International Emmy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Maxwell.[72] A one-person show about Maxwell's life, Lies Have Been Told, written by Rod Beacham, was performed by Phillip York at London's Trafalgar Studios in 2006.[73] The Fourth Estate, a 1996 novel by Jeffrey Archer, is based on the lives of Robert Maxwell and Rupert Murdoch.[74] Max, a novel by Juval Aviv, is based on Aviv's investigation into the death of Robert Maxwell.[75] Maxwell pressured Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev to cancel the contract between Elorg and Nintendo concerning the rights to the game Tetris.[76] In the 1992 final series of British sitcom The New Statesman, a recurring joke is Alan B'Stard's knowledge that Maxwell faked his death and is still alive. In the fourth episode, B'Stard visits war-torn Herzegovina, ostensibly to negotiate a peace treaty, but his plan all along has been to smuggle Maxwell out of the country to a luxury hideaway, in return for a handsome slice of the Mirror Group funds. It transpires, however, that Maxwell has already spent the money, and the episode ends with a vengeful B'Stard giving him 'an amazing deja-vu experience' - pushing him over the side of his yacht, where he presumably dies. See also[edit] Daily News (Perth, Western Australia) § Later years Ghislaine Maxwell List of people who disappeared mysteriously at sea Maxwell Communication Corporation Maxwellisation Scottish Daily News Notes[edit] ^ Parliamentary privilege allows MPs to ask questions in Parliament without risk of being sued for defamation. References[edit] ^ "Robert Maxwell's sons speak out about their fraudster father". Retrieved 10 December 2019. ^ "A Notorious Fraud – the Robert Maxwell Farrago". Australian Guardians. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2017. ^ Jump up to: a b c Марк Штейнберг. Евреи в войнах тысячелетий. p. 227. ISBN 5-93273-154-0 (in Russian) ^ Иван Мащенко (7–13 September 2002). Медиа-олигарх из Солотвина. Зеркало недели (in Russian) (#34 (409)). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Whitney, Craig R. (6 November 1991). "Robert Maxwell, 68: From Refugee to the Ruthless Builder of a Publishing Empire". The New York Times. p. 5. ^ "Ludvík Hoch (Maxwell) in the database of Central Military Archive in Prague". ^ Walters, Rob (8 December 2009). "Naughty Boys: Ten Rogues of Oxford". google.se. Retrieved 5 July 2015. ^ LLC, Sussex Publishers (May 1988). Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Kirsch, Noah. "Long Before Ghislaine Maxwell Disappeared, Her Mogul Father Died Mysteriously". Forbes. ^ "No. 37658". The London Gazette. 19 July 1946. p. 3739. ^ "No. 38352". The London Gazette. 13 July 1948. p. 4046. ^ Haines, Joe (1988). Maxwell. London: Futura. pp. 434 et seq. ISBN 0-7088-4303-4. ^ Witchell, Alex (15 February 1995). "AT LUNCH WITH: Elisabeth Maxwell; Questions Without Answers". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2013. ^ Maxwell: The final verdict ^ A mind of my own by Elisabeth Maxwell ^ "Free Research Papers – Information Intelligence, 1991". free-researchpapers.com. 28 March 1999. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. ^ Rampton, James (28 April 2007). "Maxwell was a monster - but much more, too". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 February 2018. ^ Haines (1988) 135 ^ Barwick, Sandra (25 October 1994). "The beast and his beauties". The Independent. ^ "1969: Murdoch wins Fleet Street foothold". BBC. 2 January 1969. ^ Greenslade, Roy (2004) [2003]. Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda. London: Pan. p. 395. ISBN 9780330393768. ^ Grundy, Bill (24 October 1968). "Mr Maxwell and the Ailing Giant". The Spectator. p. 6. ^ "The Maxwell Murdoch tabloid rivalry". BBC News. 5 November 2011. ^ Jump up to: a b Dennis Barker and Christopher Sylvester "The grasshopper", – Obituary of Maxwell, The Guardian, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 19 July 2007. ^ Jump up to: a b Nicholas Davenport "Money Wanted: A Board of Trade inquiry", The Spectator, 29 August 1969, p.24 ^ Nicholas Davenport "Money: The End of the Affair", The Spectator, 17 October 1969, p.22 ^ Stable, Rondle Owen Charles; Leach, Sir Ronald; Industry, Great Britain Department of Trade and (1971). Report on the Affairs of the International Learning Systems Corporation Limited: And Interim Report on the Affairs of Pergamon Press Limited, Investigation Under Section 165(b) of the Companies Act 1948. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-510728-3. ^ Stable, Rondle Owen Charles; Leach, Sir Ronald; Industry, Great Britain Department of Trade and (1971). Report on the Affairs of the International Learning Systems Corporation Limited: And Interim Report on the Affairs of Pergamon Press Limited, Investigation Under Section 165(b) of the Companies Act 1948. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-510728-3. ^ Wearing, Robert (2005). Cases in Corporate Governance. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 1412908779. ^ Betty Maxwell, p. 542 ^ Jump up to: a b c "Robert Maxwell: Overview", keputa.net ^ Jump up to: a b "Briton Buys the Mirror Chain", The New York Times, 14 July 1984 ^ Roy Greenslade Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, London: Pan, 2004 [2003], p.395 ^ Jump up to: a b "Say It Ain't So, Joe", The Spectator, 22 February 1992, p.15 ^ Roy Greenslade Press Gang, p.395 ^ "Sinclair to Sell British Unit". The New York Times. 18 June 1985. Retrieved 4 December 2009. ^ "Sinclair: A Corporate History". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 4 December 2009. ^ "Maxwell Closes London Paper", Glasgow Herald, 25 July 1987, p.3 ^ Duncan Campbell "The London legacy of Cap'n Bob", The Guardian, 28 August 2006 ^ David Ellis and Sidney Urquhart "Maxwell's Hall of Shame", Time, 8 April 1991 ^ Editorial: "Breaking the Spell", The Spectator, 21 December 1991, p.3 ^ "", Headington History ^ "In New French Best-Seller, Software Meets Espionage". ^ Jon Kelly "The strange allure of Robert Maxwell", BBC News, 4 May 2007 ^ Reuters "Murdoch conclusion stirs memories of his old foe Maxwell", Chicago Tribune, 1 May 2012 ^ "Not Private Eye", Tony Quinn, Magforum.com, 6 March 2007 ^ John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews. ^ "FO Suspected Maxwell Was a Russian Agent, Papers Reveal". The Telegraph, 2 November 2003 ^ Gordon Thomas (1999), Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, New York: St. Martin's Press, p. 23 ^ Jump up to: a b c Robert Verkaik "The Mystery of Maxwell's Death", The Independent, 10 March 2006 ^ Hersh, Seymour M. (1991). The Samson Option : Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (1st ed.). New York. pp. 312–15. ISBN 0-394-57006-5. OCLC 24609770. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ben Laurance and John Hooper, et al. "Maxwell's body found in sea", The Guardian, 6 November 1991 ^ "Scottish MP wins libel damages", The Herald (Glasgow), 22 December 1992 ^ "Robert Maxwell: A Profile". BBC News. 29 March 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b Larry Eichel (14 December 1991). "Maxwell's Legacy Of Money Troubles Maxwell's Own Daily Mirror Newspaper Now Routinely Calls Him 'The Cheating Tycoon'". Philadelphia Inquirer ^ Marlise Simons (12 December 1991). "Autopsy Indicates Maxwell Did Not Drown". The New York Times. ^ Gordon Thomas. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, page 210 ^ Clyde Haberman (11 November 1991). "The Media Business; Maxwell Is Buried In Jerusalem", The New York Times. ^ "Israel gives Maxwell farewell fit for hero". The Washington Post, 11 November 1991 ^ "George Galloway sheds light on Maxwell family and its links to Jeffrey Epstein", 23 August 2019 ^ "Maxwell, Colossus Even in Death, Laid to Rest on Mount of Olives", jta.org, 11 November 1991 ^ "BBC reveals secret Maxwell tapes". BBC. 25 April 2007. ^ Prokesch, Steven (24 June 1992). "Maxwell's Mirror Group Has $727.5 Million Loss". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February

Copy and Paste Seventeen[]

Further reading[edit] Short BBC profile of Robert Maxwell Department of Trade and Industry report on Maxwell's purchase of the Mirror Group at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 October 2004) Biography Hersh, Seymour (1991). The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy. Random House. ISBN 0-394-57006-5. Thomas, Gordon and Dillon, Martin. (2002). Robert Maxwell: Israel's Superspy: The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul, Carroll and Graf, ISBN 0-7867-1078-0 Henderson, Albert, (2004) The Dash and Determination of Robert Maxwell, Champion of Dissemination, LOGOS. 15,2, pp. 65–75. Martin Dillon, The Assassination of Robert Maxwell, Israeli Superspy Joe Haines (1988) Maxwell, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-48929-6 . Robert N. Miranda (2001) Robert Maxwell: Forty-four years as Publisher, in E. H. Frederiksson ed., A Century of Science Publishing, IOS Press ISBN 1-58603-148-1 Bower Tom Maxwell the final verdict Harper Collins 1996 ISBN 0-00-638424-2 Bower Tom Maxwell the outsider Mandarin ISBN 0-7493-0238-0 Roy Greenslade (1992) Maxwell: The Rise and Fall of Robert Maxwell and His Empire. ISBN 1-55972-123-5 Roy Greenslade (2011) "Pension plunderer Robert Maxwell remembered 20 years after his death". The Guardian, 3 November 2011. Accessed 20 October 2013 Coleridge, Nicholas (March 1994). Paper Tigers: The Latest, Greatest Newspaper Tycoons. Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane Press. ISBN 9781559722155. External links[edit] Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Maxwell FBI Records: The Vault - Robert Maxwell Opinion piece about the pension fund in the Independent in 1996 Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by Frank Markham Member of Parliament for Buckingham 1964–1970 Succeeded by William Benyon showvte Ghislaine Maxwell show Authority control Edit this at Wikidata Categories: 1923 births1990s missing person cases1991 deaths1991 in the United KingdomBritish Army personnel of World War IIBritish media company foundersBritish newspaper chain foundersBurials at the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of OlivesCzechoslovak emigrants to the United KingdomCzechoslovak JewsCzechoslovak military personnel of World War IIDeaths by drowningDerby County F.C. directorsEnglish football chairmen and investorsFormerly missing peopleJewish British politiciansJews from Carpathian RutheniaJews who immigrated to the United Kingdom to escape NazismLabour Party (UK) MPs for English constituenciesMaxwell familyMissing person cases in SpainNorth Staffordshire Regiment officersPeople lost at seaPeople who died at seaRecipients of the Military CrossRoyal Pioneer Corps soldiersUK MPs 1964–1966UK MPs 1966–197020th-century English businesspeople Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

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Copy and Paste Eighteen[]

Further reading[edit] Short BBC profile of Robert Maxwell Department of Trade and Industry report on Maxwell's purchase of the Mirror Group at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 October 2004) Biography Hersh, Seymour (1991). The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy. Random House. ISBN 0-394-57006-5. Thomas, Gordon and Dillon, Martin. (2002). Robert Maxwell: Israel's Superspy: The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul, Carroll and Graf, ISBN 0-7867-1078-0 Henderson, Albert, (2004) The Dash and Determination of Robert Maxwell, Champion of Dissemination, LOGOS. 15,2, pp. 65–75. Martin Dillon, The Assassination of Robert Maxwell, Israeli Superspy Joe Haines (1988) Maxwell, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-48929-6 . Robert N. Miranda (2001) Robert Maxwell: Forty-four years as Publisher, in E. H. Frederiksson ed., A Century of Science Publishing, IOS Press ISBN 1-58603-148-1 Bower Tom Maxwell the final verdict Harper Collins 1996 ISBN 0-00-638424-2 Bower Tom Maxwell the outsider Mandarin ISBN 0-7493-0238-0 Roy Greenslade (1992) Maxwell: The Rise and Fall of Robert Maxwell and His Empire. ISBN 1-55972-123-5 Roy Greenslade (2011) "Pension plunderer Robert Maxwell remembered 20 years after his death". The Guardian, 3 November 2011. Accessed 20 October 2013 Coleridge, Nicholas (March 1994). Paper Tigers: The Latest, Greatest Newspaper Tycoons. Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane Press. ISBN 9781559722155. External links[edit] Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Maxwell FBI Records: The Vault - Robert Maxwell Opinion piece about the pension fund in the Independent in 1996 Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by Frank Markham Member of Parliament for Buckingham 1964–1970 Succeeded by William Benyon hidevte Ghislaine Maxwell Relatives Parents Robert Maxwell (father) Elisabeth Meynard Maxwell (mother) Siblings Christine Maxwell (sister) Isabel Maxwell (sister) Kevin Maxwell (brother) Ian Maxwell (brother) Philanthropy The TerraMar Project hide Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General Integrated Authority File (Germany) ISNI 1 VIAF 1 WorldCat National libraries Spain France (data) Ukraine United States Japan Czech Republic Israel Netherlands Poland Sweden Other Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Social Networks and Archival Context SUDOC (France) 1 Trove (Australia) 1 Categories: 1923 births1990s missing person cases1991 deaths1991 in the United KingdomBritish Army personnel of World War IIBritish media company foundersBritish newspaper chain foundersBurials at the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of OlivesCzechoslovak emigrants to the United KingdomCzechoslovak JewsCzechoslovak military personnel of World War IIDeaths by drowningDerby County F.C. directorsEnglish football chairmen and investorsFormerly missing peopleJewish British politiciansJews from Carpathian RutheniaJews who immigrated to the United Kingdom to escape NazismLabour Party (UK) MPs for English constituenciesMaxwell familyMissing person cases in SpainNorth Staffordshire Regiment officersPeople lost at seaPeople who died at seaRecipients of the Military CrossRoyal Pioneer Corps soldiersUK MPs 1964–1966UK MPs 1966–197020th-century English businesspeople Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView history Search

Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate Contribute Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Wikidata item Print/export Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons

Languages العربية Deutsch Español Français Italiano 日本語 Português Русский 中文 17 more Edit links This page was last edited on 27 November 2021, at 09:23 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaMobile viewDevelopersStatisticsCookie statement

Copy and Paste Nineteen[]

Episode 5 (part 2) This aired on June 13, 2005 in Japan (they heard that "Address Unown!" was released in the USA, and then they started production) and on September 20, 2007.

Start

Misc: What, strandbeest? Man: Let the strandbeest tell you in one second... The strandbeest

The strandbeest stops

Leopoldshöhe (Leopold): I had this thing in my mind come...about a Larvitar...held in someone's hands...talking about something...thinking about a mythological Pokémon...when an Unown came...and someone saw Unown's mind... Misc: You mean...WHAT? THAT WAS SOME POKÉMON EPISODE! IT WAS AIRED FOUR YEARS AGO! IT'S NAMED "ADDRESS UNOWN"! Leopold: She got a glimpse...and I got it too...my mind is a television...that the wind controls...and the wind controls me also...the Unown had a fever...I see Larvitar, looking at the Unown...some kind of new animation...I have seen the new animation technique since August 30, 2003...at the end, there was a dimension full of Unown...someone saying "SUBMERGE!" from a different episode... Camera Person: Our animation is too old. Let's move to another animation, right... Misc: You did already in the DVD! You added something which is me correcting Jessie, James, and Nurse Joy! Camera Person: I thought it was cel, and you bought a new camera. (A recording from Camera Person starts.) Camera Person (recorded): ...now. Misc: Oh, yeah, this is cel and digital animation, alternating every 2 minutes. (The camera shows a table with the cels on it, then the camera walks toward people with microphones.) English Voice of Misc: Why am I here? And why is my voice transferred to this stranger who gives my voice to me? Japanese Voice of Misc: I speak English also, since my boss for voice acting wanted me to go here. English Voice of Misc: I have two identities. You have seen me commonly animated, but his voice was transferred to me, and this is my real identity that you are seeing me in now. Why does this stranger give his voice to me, and I give my voice to him? The stranger will give my voice to me, but I never give my voice to this stranger, because this stranger is me, my voice actor. English Voice of Leopold: I am a strandbeest...watching TV and reading the script...and I have a microphone... English Voice of Misc: WHERE'S THE COMPUTER??? (The camera falls and then is held by Misc's voice actor. He brings the camera to a computer, and then brings the camera close to the USB section.) Camera: What is happening? (The camera takes a picture of itself, where the word "2007" comes and bounces the camera up into the roof of a house. The camera falls down the door lock and unlocks it, bouncing into a game controller connected to a TV screen. It turns to widescreen.) Misc: I am in digital animation. (Misc flies into the camera, holds it, and flies into another house, hitting a door and crashing the TV, bouncing back and seeing a forest with Man and all the people who have appeared in the series flying into a forest, with Granbull bouncing a tree and getting a leaf.) Misc: Was this a dream? (Misc wakes up, sleepwalking through a forest.) Misc: Am I in another dream? (Misc runs and flies up into the house, and thinks that he might have fell while running.) Man: A computer! (Man points to a computer. All of them go inside the USB and land at the USB flash drive factory's front door.) Man 1: Why are you here? Misc: I'm not in another dream. I'm awake. Man: Okay. Engineer 1: That Granbull's owner is findrecovery297... Misc: WHAT?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Misc puts a piece of paper saying "Misc and Man signed this." into the USB.) Narrator: Months later... Mokoru and the news

Mokoru gets the USB

Woman: What's this? Computer: Hello. Your username is findrecovery297. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: Who's Misc and Man? Computer: People at the factory. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: CAN YOU REMOVE THE CODE? Computer: No. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: I'LL TELL THE NEWS NOW! Computer: Misc and Man signed this. (The woman calls the news.) Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. News People: What's "Misc and Man signed this."? Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Woman: It started on my computer. TV: Misc and Man signed this. Radio: Misc and Man signed this. Narrator: Months later... Woman: Misc and Man signed this. Misc: Misc and Man signed this. Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc: Coast to COAST? WHY IS THIS UPPERCASE? Man: IT'S AUTOMATIC! MISC!!! Misc: Okay. Categories Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted. User avatar Add a comment about Pokémon With Us All Together/Season 1 No Comments Yet Be the first to comment on Pokémon With Us All Together/Season 1!

If this is your first time on the wiki, please consider reading the rules. Bureaucrats Administrators (TBA) (TBA) Moderators Rollbacks (TBA) (TBA) Staff (TBA) CHECK OUT OUR AFFILIATES DISCORD TAGS If you see anybody abusing these following tags, please report them to us with their username and proof that they did it. Highlight text - '(message)' Code text - ```(message)``` Bold text - **(message)** Italics text - *(message)* or _(message)_ Spoiler text - ||(message)|| Mute user - -mod mute @user Reason | Length Strikethrough text - ~~(message)~~ Underlined text - __(message)__ Image display - paste URL or upload YouTube video display - paste URL WHERE YOU CAN ALSO FIND US 32px Page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Page information Recent Wiki Activity The Sirens' New Beginning Rhain991 42 minutes ago Biker Penguins From Big City NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Ratchet, Jak and Sly: Cosmic Forces (Chapter 1) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Sonic and Crash: The Lost Hex (Chapter 4) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Shantae and Moana: Sea of Dreams (Chapter 2) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Fan Feed

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Copy and Paste Twenty[]

Episode 5 (part 2) This aired on June 13, 2005 in Japan (they heard that "Address Unown!" was released in the USA, and then they started production) and on September 20, 2007.

Start

Misc: What, strandbeest? Man: Let the strandbeest tell you in one second... The strandbeest

The strandbeest stops

Leopoldshöhe (Leopold): I had this thing in my mind come...about a Larvitar...held in someone's hands...talking about something...thinking about a mythological Pokémon...when an Unown came...and someone saw Unown's mind... Misc: You mean...WHAT? THAT WAS SOME POKÉMON EPISODE! IT WAS AIRED FOUR YEARS AGO! IT'S NAMED "ADDRESS UNOWN"! Leopold: She got a glimpse...and I got it too...my mind is a television...that the wind controls...and the wind controls me also...the Unown had a fever...I see Larvitar, looking at the Unown...some kind of new animation...I have seen the new animation technique since August 30, 2003...at the end, there was a dimension full of Unown...someone saying "SUBMERGE!" from a different episode... Camera Person: Our animation is too old. Let's move to another animation, right... Misc: You did already in the DVD! You added something which is me correcting Jessie, James, and Nurse Joy! Camera Person: I thought it was cel, and you bought a new camera. (A recording from Camera Person starts.) Camera Person (recorded): ...now. Misc: Oh, yeah, this is cel and digital animation, alternating every 2 minutes. (The camera shows a table with the cels on it, then the camera walks toward people with microphones.) English Voice of Misc: Why am I here? And why is my voice transferred to this stranger who gives my voice to me? Japanese Voice of Misc: I speak English also, since my boss for voice acting wanted me to go here. English Voice of Misc: I have two identities. You have seen me commonly animated, but his voice was transferred to me, and this is my real identity that you are seeing me in now. Why does this stranger give his voice to me, and I give my voice to him? The stranger will give my voice to me, but I never give my voice to this stranger, because this stranger is me, my voice actor. English Voice of Leopold: I am a strandbeest...watching TV and reading the script...and I have a microphone... English Voice of Misc: WHERE'S THE COMPUTER??? (The camera falls and then is held by Misc's voice actor. He brings the camera to a computer, and then brings the camera close to the USB section.) Camera: What is happening? (The camera takes a picture of itself, where the word "2007" comes and bounces the camera up into the roof of a house. The camera falls down the door lock and unlocks it, bouncing into a game controller connected to a TV screen. It turns to widescreen.) Misc: I am in digital animation. (Misc flies into the camera, holds it, and flies into another house, hitting a door and crashing the TV, bouncing back and seeing a forest with Man and all the people who have appeared in the series flying into a forest, with Granbull bouncing a tree and getting a leaf.) Misc: Was this a dream? (Misc wakes up, sleepwalking through a forest.) Misc: Am I in another dream? (Misc runs and flies up into the house, and thinks that he might have fell while running.) Man: A computer! (Man points to a computer. All of them go inside the USB and land at the USB flash drive factory's front door.) Man 1: Why are you here? Misc: I'm not in another dream. I'm awake. Man: Okay. Engineer 1: That Granbull's owner is findrecovery297... Misc: WHAT?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Misc puts a piece of paper saying "Misc and Man signed this." into the USB.) Narrator: Months later... Mokoru and the news

Mokoru gets the USB

Woman: What's this? Computer: Hello. Your username is findrecovery297. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: Who's Misc and Man? Computer: People at the factory. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: CAN YOU REMOVE THE CODE? Computer: No. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Woman: I'LL TELL THE NEWS NOW! Computer: Misc and Man signed this. (The woman calls the news.) Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. News People: What's "Misc and Man signed this."? Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Woman: It started on my computer. TV: Misc and Man signed this. Radio: Misc and Man signed this. Narrator: Months later... Woman: Misc and Man signed this. Misc: Misc and Man signed this. Phone: Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc and Man signed this. Misc: Coast to COAST? WHY IS THIS UPPERCASE? Man: IT'S AUTOMATIC! MISC!!! Misc: Okay. Categories Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted. User avatar Add a comment about Pokémon With Us All Together/Season 1 No Comments Yet Be the first to comment on Pokémon With Us All Together/Season 1!

If this is your first time on the wiki, please consider reading the rules. Bureaucrats Administrators (TBA) (TBA) Moderators Rollbacks (TBA) (TBA) Staff (TBA) CHECK OUT OUR AFFILIATES DISCORD TAGS If you see anybody abusing these following tags, please report them to us with their username and proof that they did it. Highlight text - '(message)' Code text - ```(message)``` Bold text - **(message)** Italics text - *(message)* or _(message)_ Spoiler text - ||(message)|| Mute user - -mod mute @user Reason | Length Strikethrough text - ~~(message)~~ Underlined text - __(message)__ Image display - paste URL or upload YouTube video display - paste URL WHERE YOU CAN ALSO FIND US 32px Page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Page information Recent Wiki Activity The Sirens' New Beginning Rhain991 42 minutes ago Biker Penguins From Big City NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Ratchet, Jak and Sly: Cosmic Forces (Chapter 1) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Sonic and Crash: The Lost Hex (Chapter 4) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Shantae and Moana: Sea of Dreams (Chapter 2) NewMarioFan65 2 hours ago Fan Feed

More Fan Fiction 1 The Rainbow Owl Grand Theft Auto Remastered Trilogy on the Switch Fandom Creative Fanfiction Wiki Fictpedia Wiki The Best Holiday Baking Series to Watch This Winter Fandom Biggest Wikia Biggest Wikia 'Chucky' Season 2 May Bring Back Some Big 'Child's Play' Characters Fandom Suburban America 2 Biggest Wikia Join the Fan Lab! Fandom's Exclusive Digital Community ‘The Vampire Diaries’ and ‘Legacies’ Monster Battle Royale Fandom ‘Animal Crossing’: How to Have a Happy Home Horizons Holiday Fandom Wealth Biggest Wikia A Rainbow in the Galaxy: Star Wars’ First LGBTQ Character Fandom Pokémon Snap Biggest Wikia Explore Wikis

Universal Conquest Wiki

Let's Go Luna! Wiki

Club 57 Wiki Suburban America Biggest Wikia No. 37-kai! Grudge Radish, Deep Roots! RangerWiki Xu Wenwu Marvel Cinematic Universe Wiki 'Hawkeye' Setting Up Echo's Disney+ Spinoff Fandom Help:New page Community Central Los Angeles Meets Zaun in Secret Cinema’s ‘Arcane: Enter the Undercity” Fandom All-Out Warfare | What To Expect From The New Modes In ‘Battlefield 2042’ Fandom

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Copy and Paste 21[]

in: Pokémon Fan Fiction Pokémon With Us All Together/Season 1 Last edited by Misc544 (talk | contribs) 24 hours ago (diff) Edit summary: →‎Mokoru gets the USB Current size: 1480997 bytes (+92) < Pokémon With Us All Together EDIT

A / 文

Transcripts for all the episodes in Season 1. Written by Misc544, also known as Misc Practice. (This is supposed to be the only season in Pokémon With Us All Together.) Please look at this: Sorry for the thing in Episode 4, scene "Will Team Rocket Survive?". I submitted the contribution but another contribution was published (by me), and I copied and pasted it here. After the 52 episodes, there are some other stuff also!


Contents 1 Characters in each episode (not the people, the letters and other stuff!) 2 Milestones 3 Episode Episode 1 3.1 Intro 3.2 Start 3.2.1 In the House (1) 3.3 Title card 3.4 After start 3.4.1 Misc Leaving 3.4.2 Misc is in Professor's Lab 3.4.3 Misc Running 3.4.4 Raining Scene 3.4.5 Misc in the Pokémon Center 3.4.6 Misc Begging to Nurse Joy 3.4.7 Nurse Joy Checks on the Pokémon 3.4.8 Team Rocket Motto 3.4.9 Team Rocket stealing the Pichu 3.4.10 Jessie and James falling in Giovanni's HQ back in Kanto 3.4.11 Giovanni Outside 3.4.12 In The House (2) 3.4.13 Misc getting Pichu 3.4.14 Misc continuing his journey 3.5 End 3.5.1 Narrator end 3.5.2 Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB) 4 List of episodes after that one 5 Episode 2 5.1 Intro 5.2 Start 5.2.1 Misc encounters the Rai-Rai clan 5.2.2 Title card 5.3 After start 5.3.1 Rai-Rai clan 5.3.2 Pichu evolves 5.3.3 Pichu is now Pikachu 5.3.4 The Thunder Stone 5.3.5 Pikachu evolves 5.3.6 It’s now not all wild! 5.4 End 5.4.1 Narrator end 5.4.2 Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB) 6 Episode 3 6.1 Notes (not part of the script) 6.1.1 Script 6.1.1.1 Intro is inside of Start 6.1.2 Episode 6.1.2.1 Ditto and Swinub 6.2 Start 6.2.1 Intro 6.2.2 Start (Narrator and Misc) 6.2.3 Title card 6.3 After start 6.3.1 With the Raichu (1) 6.3.2 Ditto is out of its Pokéball 6.3.3 Swinub is out of its Pokéball 6.3.4 With the Raichu (2) 6.3.5 Motto of Team Rocket 6.3.6 Team Rocket steals all of the crowd’s Pokémon 6.3.7 The bag is caught by the crowd as it falls from the sky 6.3.8 With the Raichu (Crowd, 3) 6.3.9 Misc gets the paper 6.3.10 Misc tries to go to the crowd 6.3.11 The airplane lands at 1:00 AM 6.3.12 Arriving at Mokoru at 4:00 AM 6.3.13 Arriving at Kanto at 11:00 AM 6.3.14 At the headquarters 6.3.15 Jessie and James see Misc 6.3.16 An airplane to Rozia 6.3.17 Arriving in Rozia 6.3.18 Arriving at the Crowd 6.3.19 Narrator end 6.3.20 Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB) 7 Episode 4 7.1 Intro 7.2 Start 7.3 After start 7.3.1 Granbull bites Misc 7.3.2 In the USB flash drive factory 7.3.3 In a vacuum sealer factory 7.3.4 Team Rocket comes to the front door 7.3.5 In the vacuum sealer factory 7.3.6 In the vacuum sealer factory (2) 7.3.7 00:31:27:49.77 7.3.8 Will Team Rocket Survive? 7.3.9 Zheleznodorozhny the Strandbeest is broken 7.3.10 Will Team Rocket Survive? (2) 7.4 End 7.4.1 Narrator end 7.4.2 Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB) 8 Episode 5 8.1 Intro 8.2 Start 8.3 After start 8.3.1 Team Rocket survived???? 8.3.2 At Kanto 8.3.3 Tejoh Ganlend Odusla and Camera Person 8.3.4 To Old Man Shuckle! 8.3.5 Old Man Shuckle's house (entering) 8.3.6 Old Man Shuckle's house (entering, filmed by Camera Person) 8.3.7 Old Man Shuckle's house (tour) 8.3.8 Going to the Pokémon world from the north 8.3.9 The Transport System brings them to Misc & Man 8.3.10 In the vacuum sealer factory (from the exit) 8.3.11 Outside 8.3.12 Why is Leopoldshöhe repeating "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"? 8.3.13 Leopoldshöhe still says "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!" 8.3.14 168? 8.3.15 Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! -- Part 2 (Part 2 of Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!) 8.4 Errors 9 Season 2 Information 10 Latin translation 10.1 Latin dub video transcript 11 English dub 11.1 The second production's release of their dub 11.1.1 438,034 bytes? 11.1.1.1 11111 11.1.2 What? 12 The computer messes up 12.1 Why is this happening? 12.2 More 12.3 Is this an episode? 13 More than 1,000,000 bytes 14 Episode 5 (part 2) 14.1 Start 14.2 The strandbeest 14.2.1 The strandbeest stops 14.3 Mokoru and the news 14.3.1 Mokoru gets the USB Characters in each episode (not the people, the letters and other stuff!) Go to the end for the most recent predictions!

(11/21/2021 at 4:15 pm, first prediction) Each episode has about 10,107.5 characters. 88.2475389 episodes left! (We want 52 episodes when this is finished!) (11/21/2021 at 10:06 pm, started writing at 10:05 pm) 8,133.08957952 characters per each episode. There are 109.670745819 episodes left! (11/24/2021 at 5:51 pm, started writing at 5:50 pm) At section 12.1.7, I will reach #100. There are 8,549.62406015 characters per episode. (11/27/2021 at 12:00 am) There are 268540.909091 characters per episode. Milestones 50,000th character was entered on November 24, 2021. Episode Episode 1 This episode aired on October 23, 2001 in Japan and on June 8, 2002 in the USA.

Intro

(Intro) Start

In the House (1)

Radio: I wanna be the very best, like no one ever was... Misc's father: Hey... Misc's mother: Hey... I think this song is familiar to me... Misc's father: Yeah, me too. Title card

Title card: The Start of a Journey! After start

Misc Leaving

Misc (wakes up): I think I'm early. (Misc finds out his alarm clock is broken.) Misc: AAAAAAH! MY ALARM CLOCK IS BROKEN! (Misc hurries) Misc is in Professor's Lab

Misc: Hi, Professor... (Misc sees a sign) Misc: The Professor is not here today... (Misc freaks out) Misc (freaking out): WHAT??? Professor's Helper: Hello, late starter... Misc: Hi... Professor's Helper: I have a leftover Squirtle from 2 days ago... Misc: I'll take it. (Professor's Helper gives him a Pokédex) Misc: What is that? Professor's Helper: A Pokédex... (Misc presses a random button on the Pokédex that activates it.) Pokédex: Hello. Spotting Pokémon for MISC. (Misc presses another button.) Pokédex: Squirtle, the... (The Pokédex's batteries fall out as Misc presses a tall button that says "Release Batteries") Misc: What happened? Did I release the batteries? Professor's Helper: Yep. (Professor's Helper puts back the batteries into the Pokédex.) Professor's Helper: And here are some Pokéballs to put some of your Pokémon in. (Misc puts the Pokéballs in his pocket) Misc: Thanks. Professor's Helper: I'm going back while you leave this lab... Misc Running

(Misc runs) Misc (panting): Squirtle, use...Bubble Beam against that wild Graveler!!! (Squirtle uses a powerful Bubble Beam) Misc (panting): Thank you for defeating that wild Graveler! (Misc catches the Graveler) Misc: Done...it's done...this battle...that battle...it is DONE...!!!!!!! Raining Scene

Misc: I GOT MY FIRST POKÉMON, GRAVELER!!!! (Misc returns Squirtle) Misc: Return, Squirtle! (Misc finds a Pichu egg) Misc: A Pichu egg!!! Misc in the Pokémon Center

Misc: Nurse Joy, could you check my Pokémon? Nurse Joy: Sure— Misc: What? Nurse Joy: Sorry, I have to go check on a Nidoran. (Nurse Joy leaves) Misc Begging to Nurse Joy

Misc: Could you check it, PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE!!!! Nurse Joy: Okay. Nurse Joy Checks on the Pokémon

(Nurse Joy goes to put the Pokéballs in a machine.) Nurse Joy: There you go. (The Pichu egg glows) Misc: It's glowing! Nurse Joy: What's glowing? Misc: The egg!!! Nurse Joy: You warm it up. (Misc warms it up) Misc: It's hatching!!! Misc's Pichu: PICHUU!!!! Misc (excited): YAY!!!!!!! IT HATCHED!!!!! Man 1: What? A Pichu? Woman 1: Yes, a Pichu that was hatched HERE! Man 1+Woman 1: Congrats, you—- (Jessie and James go to the Pokémon Center) Team Rocket Motto

(Motto starts) Man 2: AAH!! (Motto ends) Team Rocket stealing the Pichu

Misc: AAAAAAA!! (Team Rocket steals the Pichu) Misc: Luckily... (Misc gets some scissors in his bag) Misc: And there! (Misc cuts the net.) Misc: Um.... (Pichu uses Thunderbolt) Pichu: PICHUUU!! Jessie+James: AAAAAH!!! (Jessie and James go out the door and up to the sky.) Jessie and James falling in Giovanni's HQ back in Kanto

Jessie+James: AAAAAAH!!! (Jessie and James crash into Giovanni's HQ) Giovanni: YOU FAIL, JESSIE AND JAMES! Jessie: Oh no... James: Oh my god... (Giovanni goes outside) Giovanni Outside


"Jessie and James, YOUR NEXT MISSION IS IN FRONT OF YOU!!!" Giovanni: Jessie and James, YOUR NEXT MISSION IS IN FRONT OF YOU!!! Jessie+James: Okay... In The House (2)

Misc's father: Where's Misc? Misc's mother: I think he's on his Pokémon journey. Misc getting Pichu

(Misc gets Pichu inside a Pokéball) Misc: Yay, I caught a PICHU!!! Misc continuing his journey

(Misc walks outside the Center) Misc: Goodbye, Nurse Joy! End

Narrator end

Narrator: I wonder what Misc is gonna do next... (Misc is walking from the Pokémon Center) Narrator: And maybe, I do wonder what Pokémon he is gonna catch. (To Be Continued) Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB)

50 Pokémon, 5 days a week! (Pokérap for the day of the week) List of episodes after that one Episode name Airdate (Ery) Airdate (USA) Original episode name Number of Episode The Rai-Rai Clan October 30, 2001 June 9, 2002 The Rai-Rai Clan and the Megamon! 2 Rai-Rai Power! November 6, 2001 June 10, 2002 Rai-Rai Power! The New Megamon! 3 Team Rocket is Trapped! November 13, 2001 June 11, 2002 Trapping the Rocket Gang! They Will Never Survive! 4 The Purple Shuckle November 20, 2001 June 12, 2002 Purple Shuckle Juice of Pokémon Fame Tame! Old Man Shuckle Of Fame! 5 Professor Gets Extra Pokémon! November 27, 2001 June 13, 2002 The Owned Pokémon of Misc Transported! Old Shuckle Man Is The Professor! 6 Shuckle Men In Disguise December 4, 2001 June 14, 2002 Old Shuckle Man Is The Professor In Disguise! 7 Aipom in the Warm Autumn December 11, 2001 June 15, 2002 Aipom's Hot Spring! The Banana with Primeape And Mankey! 8 Hyper Ball Lightning! December 18, 2001 June 16, 2002 Rai-Rai Lightning! Hyper Ball of Hyper Rai-Rai Raichu Falls In Rai-Rai Town! 9 Rai-Rai Power Lightning! December 25, 2001 June 17, 2002 Rai-Rai Lightning Power! Hyper Balls are Super Rai-Rai! 10 Christmas Lightning December 25, 2001 June 17, 2002 A Christmas of Rai-Rai Power! Hyper Raichu are Rai-Rai Good! 11 A Happy New Year for the Raichu! Rai-Rai Quit! January 1, 2002 June 18, 2002 Raichu Quit! New Year of 2002 is Super Hyper Good for Hyper Balls. 12 The Thistle Stop January 8, 2002 June 19, 2002 Thistle and Ledyba's Show! The Amazing Ledyba Juggler In The Very Amazing Circus!!! 13 Professor's New Ledyba January 15, 2002 June 20, 2002 Ledyba, Professor, Do They Match? We Have To Find Out! 14 (last episode here) After the 14th episode has aired, the remaining 38 episodes will be made! The titles of the 38 episodes are unknown.

Episode 2 Intro

(Intro) Start

Misc encounters the Rai-Rai clan

(Misc is with his Pichu, when he sees some Raichu.) Misc: In Rozia… Title card

Title card: The Rai-Rai Clan! After start

Rai-Rai clan

Misc: Who are those Raichu? Man: They are called the Rai-Rai clan. Misc: The Rai-Rai clan? Man: Your Pokémon might join it. Misc: My Pokémon? Man: Yes. (The Rai-Rai clan goes to his Pichu.) Man: The clan is with one of your Pokémon. Pichu evolves

Man: Probably it’s gonna evolve. (Pichu starts to evolve.) Man: It’s evolving! Misc: Yeah! Man: Pichu is evolving! Misc: Now, it’s a Pikachu! Pichu is now Pikachu

Man: If Pikachu evolves, he can go to the Rai-Rai clan! I was the first to discover it! Misc: You were the first to discover it? Man: Yes! Misc: Are they all wild? Man: They’re all wild. Misc: Yes, but it’s until Pikachu evolves into Raichu for it to become mostly wild. Man: Yes, you will be the first to enter the wild Rai-Rai clan! Misc: Then we just need a Thunder Stone! The Thunder Stone

Man: There’s no store here that has one. Misc: Then where do we find a Thunder Stone? Man: Probably where we find one. (Misc sees an evolution stone, and he picks it up) Misc: It’s a Leaf Stone, but we’ll keep it for later. (Misc sees another evolution stone, and he picks it up) Misc: It’s a Thunder Stone! Pikachu evolves

(Misc gives Pikachu his Thunder Stone) Man: Pikachu’s gonna evolve! (Pikachu evolves into Raichu) Man: Yay, Pikachu’s evolving! Misc: An important event is coming for the Rai-Rai clan! Man: It’s now officially mostly wild, with one owned Raichu! Misc: Let’s celebrate! (Pikachu is now Raichu) Misc: It’s now not all wild! It’s now not all wild!

Man: Yay! Misc: It’s mostly wild, but one is OWNED! Man: The Rai-Rai clan finally had a milestone! Misc: A milestone to be remembered! Man: It’s a very important milestone! Misc: Very important, we will be remembered by the clan! Man: We did a milestone! Misc: The milestone is very great! Man: You joined the clan, having an owned Raichu! Misc: It’s a very good milestone! (A Ditto and Swinub moves close to the Rai-Rai clan.) Misc: A good milestone was celebrated today! (Misc goes outside and catches the Ditto and Swinub.) Misc: And also, I just caught a Ditto and Swinub! Man: That’s a milestone! End

Narrator end

Narrator: An event happened today. I wonder what Misc is going to do next? (The episode ends and the Pokérap starts, to be continued) Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB)

50 Pokémon, 5 days a week! (Pokérap for the day of the week) Episode 3 Notes (not part of the script)

Script

Intro is inside of Start

The Intro is inside the Start section.

Episode

Ditto and Swinub

Ditto and Swinub were caught in the previous episode.

Start

Intro

(Intro) Start (Narrator and Misc)

Narrator: We continue now with Misc. Misc: We’re in the Rai-Rai clan! Title card

Title card: Rai-Rai Power! After start

With the Raichu (1)

Man: Hey, yesterday we celebrated a milestone. Misc: Yes, it was about the first owned Raichu in the clan. Ditto is out of its Pokéball

Misc: Go, Ditto, come out of your Pokéball! (Ditto comes out of its Pokéball) Swinub is out of its Pokéball

Misc: Go, Swinub, I choose you! (Swinub comes out of its Pokéball) With the Raichu (2)

(They go see a crowd of people, and Man becomes Man 1) Man 2: Who are these Raichu? Man 1: These are the Rai-Rai clan. (Team Rocket land in their balloon) Motto of Team Rocket

(Motto starts) Man 1: The Rai-Rai clan is good, you know! (Motto ends) Team Rocket steals all of the crowd’s Pokémon

(Team Rocket steals all of their Pokémon) Crowd (Man 1+Man 2 ...): Hey, those are our Pokémon! You are stealing them, Team Rocket! Jessie: We want to steal Pokémon! (Misc takes out his scissor again and tries to cut the net) James: You can’t cut the net! (Misc holds the net just as it goes up) Misc: I’m going to do something else... (He goes up, jumps, and lands on top of the balloon) James: Aren’t you gonna jump off and be with the crowd? (Misc’s scissors drop and pokes a hole in the balloon, which goes down) Jessie: We’re going down! (The balloon rotates and falls near a Pokémon Center.) James: There’s a Pokémon Center! (They go in their balloon.) James: We’re going to our headquarters! (James drops the bag, and Misc gets the bag) James: Our bag! The bag is caught by the crowd as it falls from the sky

(Misc throws the bag high, and it travels far to the crowd and it is caught by the crowd) Man 1: The Rai-Rai clan falls out of the sky and it is caught by someone! Man 2: The Rai-Rai clan? Man 1: The Rai-Rai clan was caught by someone! Man 3: The Rai-Rai clan was retrieved! Man 2: The Rai-Rai clan fell from the sky! Man 4+Woman 1: It fell from the sky! Man 1: The Rai-Rai clan yesterday celebrated a milestone! Man 2: The Rai-Rai clan had a milestone? Man 1: It's now not all wild! Man 5+Woman 2: It's a milestone! Man 1: The Rai-Rai clan was in a bag, and it fell from the sky! Man 6+Man 2: The Rai-Rai clan had a milestone! Man 7+Woman 3: The Rai-Rai clan had a milestone, it's now not all wild! Man 8+Man 3: The Rai-Rai clan's now not all wild! With the Raichu (Crowd, 3)

Man 8: The Rai-Rai clan was in a bag that fell from the sky! Man 9+Woman 4: The Rai-Rai clan's now not all wild! Man 1+Man 10: The Rai-Rai clan had a milestone yesterday! Man 11+Man 4: It's now not all wild! Man 10: A milestone happened yesterday! Man 1+Man 12: It's now not all wild, we're with the Raichu! Man 13: A milestone happened with the Rai-Rai clan yesterday! Man 1+Man 14: It's now not all wild! Man 4: A milestone happened yesterday! Man 15: It's now not all wild! Man 1+Man 16: A milestone happened yesterday, with the Rai-Rai clan! Man 13+Man 16: It's now not all wild, we're with the Raichu of the Rai-Rai clan, which fell from the sky today in a bag! Man 1+Man 17: The milestone happened yesterday, it's now not all wild in the Rai-Rai clan, it's now not all wild! Man 18: It's now not all wild, we had a milestone yesterday in the Rai-Rai clan! Man 19: It's now not all wild now, there was a milestone yesterday in the Rai-Rai clan! Man 20: It's now not all wild! Man 21: Yeah, it's now not all wild! Man 19: I’m a director in a film, and I’m including the Rai-Rai clan! (Man 19 throws some paper into the sky.) Misc gets the paper

Misc: I’m getting in the balloon! (The papers fall in the balloon.) Misc: The Rai-Rai clan has a role in a film! (Jessie and James come back from the Pokémon a center, and looks at the paper) Jessie: We need the Rai-Rai clan! James: Misc! (Misc starts going up.) Jessie+James: Oh no! (Jessie and James jump and hold the balloon.) Misc: I see the crowd! (Misc goes down, but Jessie and James go up.) Misc: The crowd! Oh no! (Jessie and James fall off and are caught by the crowd.) Jessie+James: Yay! Let’s find and get the bag with the Rai-Rai clan in it! Misc tries to go to the crowd

Misc: We’re a kilometer from the crowd! We’re going up! (The balloon goes up.) Misc: Oh no! An airplane! (The airplane goes into the balloon, bringing it along.) Narrator: 14 hours later… The airplane lands at 1:00 AM

Misc: Where is this airport? (The airplane lands.) Pilot: We’re in Wells, Kurichu! Misc: Kurichu? Officer Jenny: Team Rocket stole the Rai-Rai clan! Pilot, I’ll show you the location they are now. Pilot: Okay. (Pilot gets his computer from the airplane, and Officer Jenny gives him the location.) Pilot: Go to the plane! We’re going to go to Mokoru! Pilot’s computer: The plane doesn’t work. Pilot: Where is my car? (Pilot looks around) Pilot: It’s not here! Officer Jenny: Let’s walk and take a ferry. I have a ticket for St. Anne, but it’s not like the one Team Rocket handed out. I was there to celebrate Ash, Misty and Brock’s memorial, when we thought that they weren’t there. Narrator: 92 days and 3 hours later… Arriving at Mokoru at 4:00 AM

Pilot: Mokoru! Let’s locate Team Rocket. Now, where are— Officer Jenny: I just realized I put the wrong location. Narrator: 173 days and 7 hours later… Arriving at Kanto at 11:00 AM

Officer Jenny: Here we are! Now, let’s go inside Team Rocket’s headquarters. Pilot: Okay… (They walk to Team Rocket’s headquarters.) Officer Jenny: Let’s open the door and get the Rai-Rai clan! At the headquarters

Pilot: Look at the headquarters! (Giovanni goes to Pilot) Misc: Where’s Jessie and James? Giovanni: At the— (Misc goes to the left) Jessie and James see Misc

Jessie: We haven’t seen you Misc for 265 days… (Misc takes the bag and finds the Rai-Rai clan inside) Misc: The papers! (The papers are dated May 26, 1982, however it was not sent on that day.) An airplane to Rozia

Pilot: From Kanto to Rozia! (Misc comes into the airplane) Pilot: Rozia will come in…14 hours! (The airplane takes off) Narrator: 14 hours later… Arriving in Rozia

(The airplane lands) Pilot: We’re in Rozia! For you who wanted to be in Mokoru, we are going to go to Mokoru! Misc: We’re going to the Rai-Rai clan! Pilot: You’re holding the Rai-Rai clan and some papers created May 26, 1982 (although you said you didn’t get them on that day) in a bag. Misc: Okay. So I was holding them in a bag. (Misc walks) Jessie+James: We’re here! We came on this airplane, unnoticed! Giovanni: Hey, I didn’t know you were on this airplane. I was going to Mokoru to steal some Pokémon. Jessie: Okay. James: I didn’t know you were on this airplane! Narrator: 1 hour later… Arriving at the Crowd

Misc: Here’s the Rai-Rai clan! (Misc is holding the bag which contains the papers and the Rai-Rai clan. He is giving the Rai-Rai clan to Man 1, who was previously Man, and he is going to give the papers to the Rai-Rai clan, because the papers are about the Rai-Rai clan getting a role in a film.) Man 1: Hey there! Misc: Team Rocket is going to Mokoru, where they will steal some Pokémon! I heard Giovanni was talking about it with two Team Rocket people, Jessie and James. Narrator: Word went, and one told Officer Jenny. Officer Jenny went to visit Mokoru, and waited for Team Rocket. When Team Rocket came, Officer Jenny caught Team Rocket and put them on an airplane to Kanto. Man 1: But, that’s Rai-Rai Power! Misc: How? Man 1: It spread also by Pokémon! I heard Meowth say all the Pokémon were talking about how Team Rocket (them) were going to go to Mokoru to steal some Pokémon! (Man 1 turns into Man) Narrator end

Narrator: And so, we wonder what the Mokoru Rai-Rai Power will still spread after Team Rocket was in Mokoru to steal some Pokémon… (The episode ends and the Pokérap starts) Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB)

50 Pokémon, 5 days a week! (Pokérap for the day of the week) Episode 4 Intro

(Intro) Start

Narrator: We continue to Misc’s journey. We find him looking at a Snubbull, stolen from Mokoru by Team Rocket, but had found its way to Misc. Misc: Well… (A Snubbull comes to Misc and evolves to Granbull) Misc: Yay!!!!!! Narrator: The Snubbull came to Misc and started to evolve. When it evolved, Misc became very happy, and said "Yay!!!!!!". Now, we have a Granbull, who had recently evolved, and an owned Raichu who had joined the Rai-Rai clan, who are a group of Raichu. All the Raichu are wild except one, and that is the owned Raichu Misc has. After start

Granbull bites Misc

Misc: Granbull! (Man comes) Narrator: The man is coming, and he is bringing the rest (the wild part) of the Rai-Rai clan in a bag! Oh, and I forgot to mention that a director gave the Rai-Rai clan a role in his film yesterday (or last episode)! I broke the fourth wall. And I broke it again. Misc: Oh, look! There’s a flash drive factory a meter ahead of us! Man: Yes! I can see the USB flash drive factory! (Granbull bites Misc) Misc+Man: Granbull!!! Misc: This sign says "This USB flash drive factory was established on November 13, 1998."! Man 1: Hey, mold subcontractor! (Misc and Man walk into the USB flash drive factory) In the USB flash drive factory

Man 1: Hey! I need to use that flash drive to quality test it! Misc+Man: Hey! Man 1: Hey! Welcome to the USB flash drive factory! Engineer 1: Hey! I’m the engineer! Man 1: Hey, engineer! Can you tell me the username of this drive? Engineer 1: It’s findrecovery297! (Misc and Man walk out of the USB flash drive factory) In a vacuum sealer factory

Man 2: Hi vacuum sealer, seal this bag. (The vacuum sealer seals the bag) Man 2: Thanks! (Misc and Man walk into the vacuum sealer factory) Man 2: Welcome to our vacuum sealer factory! Man 3: Put one of your Raichu in a bag! Man: Okay! Engineer 2: Testing Pokémon sealing with a Raichu? Okay, we’ll advertise that. Camera people, come here! Camera Person: What’s your name? Misc: My name’s Misc. Camera Person: Misc, go here. (Misc walks to the vacuum sealer.) Camera Person: And here’s your script. (Camera Person gives Misc some papers.) Misc: Okay. Camera Person: We are filming the advertisement for Pokémon sealing. (Camera Person starts to film.) Man 2: Our newest vacuum sealer can seal Pokémon. Misc: Hi vacuum sealer, seal this bag. (The vacuum sealer seals the bag.) Vacuum Sealer: Pokémon detected. The Pokémon’s name is Raichu. Man 4: Only for people who own Raichu can get this. It is distributed for free. Engineer 2: Okay, we just put the advertisement on television. Man: There’s a view from Mokoru! Misc: More views from Mokoru! Man 4: Officer Jenny told me how many members Team Rocket has, and when they went to Mokoru to steal some Pokémon. And the views from Mokoru now has been for the last 3 seconds the exact number of members Team Rocket currently has. Let’s get my Officer Jenny computer Officer Jenny gave me last month. (Man 4 walks out of the room using a door that says "Computers (for Vacuum Sealers)") Misc: I never knew that the thing I said about Team Rocket going to Mokoru a few days ago would go worldwide! (Man 4 walks into the room carrying a computer that tracks how many of Team Rocket’s members are there.) Man 4: A new member joined right now, and at the exact same time a view was added in Mokoru. So, Team Rocket is watching our advertisement. Camera Person: I’m gonna film you, Misc, saying "Come steal some Pokémon here at the front door!" live. Misc: Okay. Camera Person: Okay! (The Camera Person starts filming live.) Misc: Come steal Pokémon here at the front door! Camera Person: Okay. Man 2: Let’s construct a vacuum sealer trap. Narrator: 14 hours later… Team Rocket comes to the front door

Jessie: Hello! James: We’re here to steal some Pokémon! Jessie: You said it live when we were in— (Jessie and James fall into the trap.) In the vacuum sealer factory

Camera Person: We put some cameras and started filming inside of a trap. Misc: Hold on. I think I heard someone say "Hello!". Camera Person: Let’s rewind it. (The Camera Person rewinds it.) Jessie: Hello! James: We’re here to steal some Pokémon! Jessie: You said it live when we were in— (Jessie and James fall from the top into the trap.) Jessie: —Mokoru. Camera Person: Let me just put it to live. (The Camera Person puts the camera to live.) Man 4: My Officer Jenny computer (OJC) says that this is the time they are put inside the bag. (The camera shows Jessie and James going inside the trap elevator, switching to the second camera which is filming Jessie and James fall into the bag.) Man 4: Then, the bag is moved to the right, where they are sealed. Okay, now I see Giovanni and the rest of the Team Rocket members going inside the bag. Misc: Yay! And I get to keep a Granbull Team Rocket stole while they were in Mokoru! Man 4: Okay. Man: Oh, look! It’s switching to the third camera! Man 4: The three vacuum sealers are arriving! Misc: They’re sealing the bag! Man: Now they’re going left. Misc: It switched into the third camera! I almost said "It switched into the second camera!". But I realized my mistake. The second camera already had its turn to broadcast here. Man: Now they’re in the elevator. Camera Person: Here’s the fourth camera! Man: They’re going right. Misc: It’s switching to the fifth camera! Man: And they’re in the refrigerator! Misc: It switched to the sixth camera! Man: Yes. Jessie+James+Giovanni: Help us! Misc, you got us trapped, but we’re supposed to trap you! Man 4: My computer says there’s something on TV! Misc: Okay. (Misc turns on the TV) Jessie: Help us! We’re freezing! Giovanni: Help save Team Rocket by donating money! (Misc turns off the TV) Misc: That is just Team Rocket trying to use our trap to get richer. Camera Person: And I forgot to mention that I installed a thermometer in the refrigerator. And also, the refrigerator is also an elevator. Thermometer: The temperature is -100. Camera Person: It’s going down now… Misc: It switched to the seventh camera! Camera Person: In here it’s very hot, so the bag is melting… Misc: And it’s now warm there. Camera Person: Yes. Misc: It’s just stone! Camera Person: Yes, but if they try to mine it, then they’ll have wood, seals (not the animal), and then wood again, and then stone, before they find $500 and a sign saying "Come mine up here!", and parts of a ladder. Once they make the ladder, they will find wood, a box of stuff we found when we made the trap, stone again, another box of stuff we found while making this building, glass, wood again, plastic, glass again, stone again, wood again, and then the exit. But to mine, they need to unseal the bag first. Misc: I think they’re unsealing the bag right now. Camera Person: Oh no! Misc: And now they’re mining. Man: Yes. Camera Person: They’re mining the wood. Now they’re mining the seals. And now wood, and then… Misc: They reached the stone! Camera Person: The $500 is a fake. Misc: That’s good. Camera Person: The gold is also a fake. Misc: Okay. Man: They mined the stone! Man 2: Oh no! Misc: They’re assembling the ladder! Man: The ladder is, well, nearly assembled… Engineer 2: The other camera person is sick today. I just found out. Man 2: Okay. Camera Person: I learned some stuff from that person! Misc: They found the wood. Man: It’s already mined! Misc: Okay. Man: It’s on the eighth camera now, right? Camera Person: Right. Man: The first box of stuff is falling. Misc: Oh no! Camera Person: Many of the stuff in the box were antiques. Misc: Okay. Man: I see the stone! Misc: Yes, me too. Camera Person: They already mined it! Engineer 2: Oh no! (Man 1 walks into the room) Man 1: What’s happening? Engineer 2: We made a trap for Team Rocket, and they’re mining. Man 1: Why? Engineer 2: They’re mining to find the exit. Man 1: Okay. Misc: The second box of stuff already fell? Man 1: They’re in the final level. Misc: The wood is mined! Man 1: Oh no! (The exit opens.) Man 1: No! Giovanni+Jessie+James: Yay!!!!! Jessie: And I found my Snubbull—I mean Granbull!!! (Camera Person closes the exit.) Misc: Look at this! (Team Rocket falls.) Misc: Let’s get rid of the trap! Camera Person: Okay. (Camera Person leads Misc to a button that says "Activate The Most Powerful Explosion To Get Rid Of The Trap For Team Rocket".) Camera Person: You’ll press it…now!!! (Misc presses the button, and an explosion is heard.) Man 1: Look at this! (Camera Person and Misc walk to the camera, where all of the eight cameras are displaying fire. The eighth camera shows Team Rocket lying on top of two boxes.) Man 1: Yay! We trapped Team Rocket in a fire! Misc: Let’s go check it out! (All of the people open the door, looking at a fire.) Man 1: Wear these! (All of the people put on some clothes that will make them survive the fire.) Man 2: I see the water flowing! (They come down and use the elevator to go to the eighth camera’s location.) Misc: I see Team Rocket! (All of the people get Team Rocket.) Misc: Let’s go to the elevator! Camera Person: Okay. (They come to the exit.) Machine: Team Rocket is not here. Misc: Yay! All of the people: YAY!!!!!!!!! (Granbull punches Team Rocket and Misc.) Misc: Ouch!!! Team Rocket (on camera): Help us! (Misc turns off the camera.) Misc: Let me call Officer Jenny. (Misc calls Officer Jenny.) Misc: Come here right now! There’s no Team Rocket! Officer Jenny (calling): YAY!!!!!!!!! (Misc hangs up.) Misc: I called Officer Jenny. She's going here. Man: Let's wash it. (Misc pours water over them) Misc: Already done! Man: Okay. Misc: And I'm burning them in the fireplace. (Misc throws all of them into the fireplace.) Man: I think Officer Jenny is coming in 30 minutes. Narrator: Thirty minutes later... Misc: Let me extinguish the fireplace! (Misc presses a button saying "Extinguish The Fireplace" and the fireplace is extinguished.) Misc: Let me call Nurse Joy now. (Misc calls Nurse Joy.) Nurse Joy (calling): What is happening? They say that Team Rocket is not here on the news--Oh, hi! Misc: We have Team Rocket. Can you do something to them that they will be unrecognizable? Nurse Joy (calling): Yes! Misc: Okay. (Misc hangs up.) Man: Nurse Joy is coming in a minute. (Officer Jenny walks into the room by the front door.) Officer Jenny: Team Rocket! You finally got rid of them forever! How did you do that? (Misc turns on the TV) TV: An interview with the person who got rid of Team Rocket, Misc Practice! Misc: Well, we had a trap. Officer Jenny: Okay. Misc: Before that, we put an advertisement on TV. And then, Team Rocket started watching it in Mokoru. And then, we realized that we can say that there was some Pokémon to steal on the front door, and we did that. So the trap was built in a day. Well, almost a day. When Team Rocket arrived, we watched their progress through the trap, and they found the exit. But the person who owned the eight cameras closed it, and I decided to get rid of the trap, so he led me to a button, and I pressed it, and the trap exploded. When the trap exploded, we got rid of them. Officer Jenny: Then, what happened? Misc: We went down with clothes and extinguished the fire, then got Team Rocket and and came up the elevator. We went up the exit, and this machine said we got rid of them. That is how we found out we got rid of them. So I called you, Officer Jenny. I poured water over them, then put them in the fireplace for 30 minutes, then extinguished the fireplace. And then I called Nurse Joy to make them unrecognizable. Officer Jenny: Okay. (Nurse Joy walks into the room using the front door.) Nurse Joy: Let me make them unrecognizable... (Nurse Joy first pours water over them. Nurse Joy puts them in the exit, and then Nurse Joy gets rid of the trap again. She does it 10 times, then she gets them and puts them in the exit, then she pours water over them. Now, they are just wet, with their clothes in mud. Nurse Joy puts an "Explosion Controlled Container" in their mouths and hands, and activates them 5 times. Nurse Joy then gets them and put them on a bed. Then they put them in the washing machine. Nurse Joy gets them, and washes them.) Misc: Okay! It is unrecognizable! Jessie doesn't look like Jessie, James doesn't look like James, and Giovanni doesn't look like Giovanni! Now, let's walk! (All of the people walk, carrying Team Rocket in a box.) Misc: TEAM ROCKET'S ISN'T HERE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Jessie 2+James 2: WE HEARD THAT ON THE NEWS ALREADY!!!!!!! Misc: Okay. Man: You forgot to turn off the TV. Misc: Okay. I'll turn it off right now. (Misc turns off the TV.) Man: WHO ARE YOU??????? Jessie 2+James 2: JESSIE AND JAMES OF TEAM ROCKET 2!!!!! WE DECIDED TO MAKE TEAM ROCKET 2 AFTER REALIZING OUR NAMES WERE JESSIE AND JAMES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! AND TEAM ROCKET 2 IS NOT AN EVIL COMPANY, IT IS A GOOD COMPANY!!!!!!! I MEAN, IT'S NOT AN EVIL TEAM, IT'S A GOOD TEAM!!!!!!!!!!!! Misc: Okay. Man: Yes. Misc: BUT YOU SHOULD CHANGE YOUR COMPANY NAME SO THEY DON'T REALIZE THEY'RE EVIL!!!! (Jessie 2 and James 2 walk to Misc.) Misc: You look like... (Motto starts) Misc: I thought you were not here!!! (Motto ends) Jessie: Those people you thought as our members? They were robots! James: Made by Team Rocket, which is us! Giovanni: Thanks for your great idea that you came up when we were in Mokoru! Jessie+James: Giovanni! Giovanni: When I heard the news, we went in a message in a bottle, sent from Mokoru! James: And it washed up here! (Officer Jenny walks into the street.) Officer Jenny: HEY! (Nurse Joy walks into the street.) Nurse Joy: They were robots? That explains the wires I found when I was trying to make those robots unrecognizable. Jessie+James: You made our specially-made robots UNRECOGNIZABLE???????????? Nurse Joy: Yes. In the vacuum sealer factory (2)

Misc: Here are your unrecognizable robots! (Powder and burnt wires are everywhere. Electricity shocks Misc, and the shoes have smoke.) Nurse Joy: This one is Giovanni. Jessie+James: I don't even recognize him! Misc: Yeah! Jessie+James: I have a new idea for a robot! (Jessie+James, carrying the robots, walk to the USB flash drive factory.) Misc's Raichu: Rai-rai! Granbull: Granbull! Gran! Bull gran! Machine: Granbull isn't a grandma of a bull. Narrator: Real world reference. Misc's Raichu+Granbull: Chugran raigran bullchu raichu granbull snub-gran Snubrai! (Snubrai walks into the room.) Snubrai: Hi! My name is Snubrai! I heard my name here. Some Pokémon said it. Misc: The Pokémon who said your name, Snubrai, were my Raichu and a Granbull I haven't caught yet. The Granbull was stolen by Team Rocket, but somehow it found its way to me. And she remembers being a Snubbull, since she recently evolved at the start of the episode. Narrator: You broke the fourth wall, Misc! Misc: Snubrai, did you hear the news that Team Rocket was gone forever? That isn't true. They were robots. The real Team Rocket was in Mokoru, and when it aired, they were in a message in a bottle. Snubrai: Oh no! Narrator: 31 hours, 27 minutes and 49 seconds later... 00:31:27:49.77

TV: Oh no! Team Rocket is back! Coming live is the second trap! Misc: Okay, putting it by the front door... (Misc puts them in the trap.) TV: Yay! Cheer as they will never survive! Misc: Yay!!!!!! Welcome to "Will Team Rocket Survive?", and me, Misc, is the host! Man: Me too. You can call me "Man". TV: Okay! Man: Let's go to the eight cameras! (They walk to the eight cameras) TV: Team Rocket is in! The real Team Rocket, not those robots who acted as all the Team Rocket members! Misc: If they mine down, it goes to the section for the Parsons! TV: Yes! Many members of the factories are hidden in the trap, building the trap machines! Machine: Team Rocket has passed the room of Torysou. TV: The trap is in the process of being rebuilt. Machine: Team Rocket has passed the room of Chevak. I will say the room name and ignore the "Team has passed the room of [room name].". I have now told you. Misc+Man: Okay. Jessie: What is-- (An unexpected explosion comes.) Jessie: --this? (Jessie holds a piece of an antique safe.) Officer Jenny: I do the unexpected explosions! (Another unexpected explosion comes.) Machine: Laojunmiao. Misc: They're in the Laojunmiao room! That's where they store the explosion stuff! Officer Jenny: An unexpected explosion coming right now! (An unexpected explosion comes.) Machine: Next explosion room is Gansu, 6 meters away. And on the mantle, stockings are hung... Misc: The doodles! Narrator: Another real world reference. Machine: Statesville. Officer Jenny: The unexpected explosion is happening in 5 seconds! Machine: Gansu. (An unexpected explosion comes.) Officer Jenny: They're falling right now! (Jessie and James fall into Gansu.) Officer: An unexpected explosion right now! (Another unexpected explosion comes.) Jessie: Help me... Machine: There's something on the TV. (The TV news changes into an advertisement.) Jessie: Help us! We're with lots of-- (Five unexpected explosions come quickly.) Jessie: --exploding-- (Ten unexpected explosions come quickly.) Jessie: --stuff! (Twenty-seven unexpected explosions come quickly.) Giovanni: Help Team Rocket by giving money! (The advertisement changes into the TV news.) Misc: That's just Team Rocket trying to use our trap to get money for the second time. Machine: Fessenden. Misc: They climbed! Oh no! Machine: Triptych. Misc: Do the unexpected explosion thirty-eight times! Officer Jenny: Okay. (Thirty-eight unexpected explosions happen.) Machine: Fallon. Misc: The rooms are 3 meters by 3 meters squares! Machine: Huron. Misc: Huron, like the lake... Machine: Mao. Narrator: Not a real world reference. Misc's Raichu+Granbull: Snubrai! Snubrai: Yes? Machine: Wyndmoor. Snubrai: Wyndmoor? Okay. Machine: Aozou. Misc: Okay. Machine: Zheleznodorozhny. Will Team Rocket Survive?

Giovanni: This is the exit. It's up there. Jessie: Okay. −

(Team Rocket climbs up the exit, mining.) −

Giovanni: Are you mining? −

James: Mining still, Giovanni! −

(An unexpected explosion comes, making Team Rocket (including Giovanni, Jessie and James fall and the exit to open.) −

Jessie: STRANDBEEST!!!!!!! −

(A strandbeest comes, and it starts getting windy for the strandbeest to move.) −

Misc: The strandbeest! More wind, Snubrai! −

Snubrai: Okay. −

(The wind becomes more powerful, and the wind from the opposite direction blows, leading the other strandbeest to come and move.) −

Jessie: ANOTHER STRANDBEEST!!!!!!! −

James: OH NO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! −

Giovanni: They're colliding! −

(Pieces of PVC are in the air. They hit Team Rocket a lot. −

Misc: Do the unexpected explosions! −

Officer Jenny: Okay. −

(A hundred and eighty-eight unexpected explosions happen.) −

Misc: They're not here! We got rid of them! −

Voice of Leopoldshöhe the Strandbeest (Leopoldshöhe): Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny! Zheleznodorozhny the Strandbeest is broken

Misc: Leopoldshöhe? Your friend is broken. Leopoldshöhe: Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. Will Team Rocket Survive? (2)

Jessie+James: Strandbeest parts all over! Help us! TV: Hey, you will never survive! (The TV switches from the news to an advertisement.) Jessie: Help us! Some strandbeest put their parts in this-- (An unexpected explosion happens.) Jessie: --powerful-- (Another unexpected explosion happens.) Jessie: --wind! (Seventy-three thousand three hundred and seventy-eight explosions happen.) Giovanni: Help save Team Rocket by giving-- (Twenty-eight unexpected explosions happen.) Giovanni: --money! (The TV switches from the advertisement to the news.) Misc: That advertisement is the third time Team Rocket tried to use our trap to get some money. Machine: Let's go down. (They go down the Team Rocket trap.) Misc: Team Rocket! (Misc carries Team Rocket.) Machine: Team Rocket is not here. Misc+Man+Officer Jenny+Nurse Joy+Camera Person+Snubrai+Man 1+Man 2+Man 3+Man 4+Engineer 2+TV: YAY!!!! Camera: Showing Jessie, James, and Giovanni. (The camera rewinds.) Giovanni: Help save Team Rocket by giving-- (Seventy-three thousand three hundred and seventy-eight explosions happen.) Misc: They altered it! Giovanni: --money! (Eighty-two unexpected explosions happen.) Misc: I counted twenty-eight, but actually there were eighty-two! Machine: There are no wires. These are not robots. They are real. Misc: YAY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Man: We finally got rid of Team Rocket! It's the truth! Misc: It is the truth! End

Narrator end

Narrator: And so, that is how Misc, Man, and all of the people here got rid of Team Rocket. (To Be Continued) Pokérap (250; not including Mewtwo) (DUB)

50 Pokémon, 5 days a week! (Pokérap for the day of the week) Episode 5 Intro

(Intro) Start

Narrator: Last time Misc got rid of Team Rocket. But now... Jessie 3+James 3: HEY! WE ARE JESSIE 3 AND JAMES 3 OF TEAM ROCKET 3! WE DECIDED TO CREATE TEAM ROCKET 3 AFTER REALIZING OUR NAMES WERE JESSIE AND JAMES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! (Jessie 3 and James 3 walk to Misc.) Misc: You look like... After start

Team Rocket survived????

Jessie+James: We survived by strandebeests! Nurse Joy: I never noticed that! I thought the PVCs were from the strandebeests we built! Jessie+James: WHAT???? YOU ALSO MADE STRANDEBEESTS? BECAUSE OF THAT IDEA WE SURVIVED! WHOEVER CAME UP WITH THAT IDEA, WE HAVE SOMETHING FOR YOU! THEY ARE AUTOMATICALLY GONNA DO IT! AND YOU'RE NEVER GONNA RETIRE FROM IT! WE WILL NEVER GONNA GIVE YOU UP, AND WE WILL NEVER GONNA LET YOU DOWN! Meowth: Here's the new robot! (A robot 77 meters tall walks on the factory and activates exploding stuff. It demolishes the factory.) Jessie: Okay. Who had the idea of putting strande-- Misc: Strandbeests. Jessie: Who had the idea of putting strandbeests? Camera Person: Misc! Jessie: Misc, you are the newest member of Team Rocket! (Jessie calls Giovanni.) Giovanni (calling): Hello? Jessie: We have a new member of Team Rocket, Misc! Giovanni (calling): Good. That guy tried to trap us a million times! Because of that, he will be in charge of making traps! (Jessie stops calling Giovanni.) At Kanto

Misc: I have a plan to not be part of Team Rocket! Man: Okay. (Misc digs down, then goes right.) Misc: Come here, Man! Man: Into a trap you built? Okay. (Man jumps into Misc's trap.) Misc: Follow me! (Misc, digging, leads Man to a stone, then he comes left and Man climbs and pours sand in the trap while Misc goes right. Man digs and pours sand.) Misc: Welcome to my village, Misc & Man! Man: There's no houses. Misc: Later! (Misc digs, and he discovers a waterfall.) Man: And I have some food! Misc: This is 1 kilometer deep. (Misc climbs up and puts stone on the roof of the village.) Misc: Here's some wood I found to build a house! (Misc and Man build a house, the only house yet in the village of Misc & Man.) Man: There's a house! (Misc and Man construct the downstairs.) Misc: I don't have to carry stuff anymore! (Misc lets go of all his stuff.) Misc: I found a person! Man: Let me get him. (Man recovers the person and carries him.) Misc: Hello? Tejoh: Hello! My name is Tejoh. Misc: Why are you here, Tejoh? Tejoh: A day ago, I got lost in a forest trying to hide from Team Rocket. I had been part of Team Rocket until I learned they were evil. Misc: I'm part of Team Rocket, and I'm trying to not be part of it. I have my card. Tejoh: If you're not trying to be part of it, I'll tell you how I-- (A Dugtrio appears.) Tejoh: --became not part of it. So I got access to their computers, and changed the code with a programmer in the Norocket Club, a club of people trying to escape out of Team Rocket. And here's a Westlife CD, Coast to Coast. Misc: I have a DVD player. Let me play it. (Misc puts the Westlife DVD into the DVD player.) Man: We have constructed a village called Misc & Man for you to hide in! Fortunately, you ended up in the only house in Misc & Man! Misc: Let me write something on that stone. (Misc writes "We are in Misc & Man. The population yet is 3. With all the people, named Misc, Man, and Tejoh.) Misc: Let me put it in the sand. (Misc puts the stone in the sand, buries it deep, and covers it.) Man: That Westlife DVD reminds me of when I listened to a Westlife song in 1999 on the radio. It was the last song I heard on the radio before discovering the Rai-Rai clan. Tejoh: Okay. I heard that your Rai-Rai clan was offered a role in a film by a director in the crowd. Is that true? Man: Yes. I can show you the papers if you want. Tejoh: Okay. Show me the papers. (Man gets the papers.) Man: Here it is! Oh, and I installed a Transport System inside the house. Misc: Yep! Transport System: I can also dig. Man: Yes. (The Transport System digs.) Tejoh: I was a House Builder. I'm going upstairs and building a house for myself. Misc: Okay, Tejoh! Tejoh: Okay! Narrator: 1 hour later... Misc: Nice house, Tejoh! Tejoh: Yeah! I'm experienced! (The Rai-Rai clan sing a Westlife song.) Man: That song the Rai-Rai clan is singing? It's the last song I heard on the radio before I found them. Tejoh: Tejoh Ganlend Odusla is my full name. Misc: Okay. Tejoh Ganlend Odusla and Camera Person

(Camera Person walks into the house.) Man: The camera person? Why are you here? Camera Person: The news of the village of Misc and Man reached me privately and securely by email. It was sent from tejohwestlife@email.emailsender.emailfromtejoh.security2779.miscandmanvillage.mappingareas.miscsemailtransferrer.cameraperson.techfriends.friendprivateemail.tejohganlendodusla.us.com. Misc: That is a very long email address! Tejoh: I sent it. The very long email address is for privacy and security. Camera Person: Okay. Gimerisu: Hi! My name is Gimerisu! Misc: Okay. Camera Person: Do you have a very long address, Gimerisu? Gimerisu: Yes! Two of them! The first one is gimerisucoasttocoast@email.gimerisu.email.subdomains.tejohganlendodusla.us.com and the other one is gimerisujune1918oldmanshucklewife@email.oldmanshucklewife.gimerisu.email.subdomains.tejohganlendodusla.us.com. Misc: You were born in June 1918? Gimerisu: Yes! I once emailed an email address which was bottlemessagessenttothisemailat1886paulamessagesinabottlethisisprobablythelongestemaileverincludingthedomainthathasmanysubdomainsinitwhichisokay@email.june1988messageinabottlesender.firstpersonthatgavememymessageinabottlebackwasnamedgimerisuwhowas70atthetime.gimerisuwasborninjune1918.sheisthewifeofoldmanshuckle.irememberthedayshegavemethatbottle.sheismyfriend.butihaventfoundheryet.maybesheisstillalive.findgimerisuthewifeofoldmanshuckle.anaipomoncefoundamessageinabottle.anditwasmine.itwasreportedinthenews.theaipomsownerwasgimerisu.soimetheragain.heydidntiseeyoubeforeyourefamiliarshesaidwhenwemetforthesecondtime.onoctober262001iwasveryexcitedbecausethatwasthedayimetgimerisuforthesecondtime.iveonlymetgimerisuthreetimes.whereisgimerisu.iwanttoseeandmeetherforthefourthtime.messageinabottle.subdomains.tejohganlendodusla.us.com. That email is super long! Misc: It is. Gimerisu: I need to bring you to Old Man Shuckle! Misc: Okay. Does Old Man Shuckle have a place to hide? Gimerisu: Old Man Shuckle has a shed for Shuckle. Misc: Okay. We're hiding from Team Rocket in this village. This village is called Misc & Man. Gimerisu: Okay. To Old Man Shuckle!

(The Transport System digs up.) Transport System: Where is Old Man Shuckle? Gimerisu: At his house. Transport System: Using data from October 26, 2001. Found Old Man Shuckle's house! Man: It has TV commercials, movies, and episodes of series from December 27, 1986 to October 29, 2001. Gimerisu: Where'd you get the 1986 stuff from? Man: I got the stuff from 1986-1997 from pictures of the TV and VHS. From 1997-1999, it was DVD. From 1999-2000, it was VHS. And from 2000-2001, it was DVD. Gimerisu: You should make a copy of the TV stuff and send it to the Internet Archive for them to preserve it. Man: Okay. But what is the Internet Archive? Gimerisu: It's an archive for anything, even the Internet. Man: Okay. I'll send it to the Internet Archive when we get to Old Man Shuckle's house. Gimerisu: Okay. Misc: When did you decide to build the Transport System? Man: In 1983. Misc: 19 years ago! Man: Yes. It was 19 years ago. 1 year from now, on June 20, 2003, we will celebrate the 20th birthday of the Transport System! Misc: What did you do on June 20, 1993? Man: We celebrated! Misc: Okay. Man: A poem! Let me read it. Misc: Read it now! Man: It says... (The poem is read.) I radio him It nods you The dream sugar Flying or the list collars another banter The rash collect spout to a best luge He irons her We waddle them They contain us The direct soft bleat about a indifferent rift A lame removal Waxer and some typhoon thinks my post She beams me Drop but a typing sculptures whichever certainty (The poem is given to the Transport System.) Transport System: Locations for Old Man Shuckle's house are election.typhoon.banter, sculptures.rifted.thinks, direct.soft.bleat, radio.dream.sugar, spout.best.luge, indifferent.gentlemen.waxer, beams.lame.removal, drop.typing.whichever, certainty.another.collars, list.nods.irons, they.waddle.contain, and rash.collect.them! Man: Is that the upstairs? Transport System: It's the upstairs. Man: What are the locations for the downstairs? Transport System: The main one in the middle is puzzle.cool.sleigh. Misc+Man: Okay. Transport System: The shed is loved.outcome.lofts. Misc: Where's worthy.credit.branded? Transport System: 304 kilometers away. Man: Where are we? Transport System: We are at dreaming.cycling.opinion. Gansu is in alert.this.ended, and Mao is in strandbeest.sailing.gave. We are now at mountain.docked.late. 304 kilometers away is now shop.desktop.models. Man: Okay, Transport System. Misc: Is there a shop that sells desktops at shop.desktop.models? Transport System: There is no shop there that sells desktops at shop.desktop.models. Misc: Okay. Old Man Shuckle's house (entering)

(The house's Transport System stops at a wooden house with Old Man Shuckle and his Bellsprout looking at a Shuckle and a wooden shed where Shuckle play.) Gimerisu: Here we are! Old Man Shuckle's house and the Shuckle shed! Misc: Where's Old Man Shuckle? Gimerisu: Let's go inside. (Gimerisu walks into the old house.) Old Man Shuckle: Hello there, Gimerisu! Gimerisu: Hey there, Old Man Shuckle! (Misc walks into the old house.) Misc: Hey, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hey there! (Man walks into the old house.) Man: Hello there, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hello! (Transport System and Camera Person walk into the old house.) Transport System: Hey there, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hello there! Camera Person: Hello, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hey there! Old Man Shuckle's house (entering, filmed by Camera Person)

Camera Person: I filmed that! (Camera Person's film is shown. The film starts.) Gimerisu: Here we are! Old Man Shuckle's house and the Shuckle shed! Misc: Where's Old Man Shuckle? Gimerisu: Let's go inside. (Gimerisu walks into the old house.) Old Man Shuckle: Hello there, Gimerisu! Gimerisu: Hey there, Old Man Shuckle! (Misc walks into the old house.) Misc: Hey, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hey there! (Man walks into the old house.) Man: Hello there, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hello! (Transport System and Camera Person walk into the old house.) Transport System: Hey there, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hello there! Camera Person: Hello, Old Man Shuckle! Old Man Shuckle: Hey there! (Camera Person's film ends.) Old Man Shuckle's house (tour)

Old Man Shuckle: This is where I get pieces of wood to build more hidden sections of this house.. Transport System: A better place would be wood.getting.place, which is in Mokoru. Old Man Shuckle: Okay. Gimerisu: And this is where Old Man Shuckle puts them so that they travel down. There's 20 machines in this thing so they can automatically build a floor of this house. Old Man Shuckle: Yes. (The Camera Person puts a camera.) Camera: Moving down. Falling. Camera Person: Oh no! Where is the camera? Gimerisu: Some room. Camera Person: It's falling down, broken by the machines! Old Man Shuckle: Oh no! Misc: A fire! It's exploding! (The house explodes.) Transport System: We are at official.steeper.indexing. Misc: Okay. Man: We're falling! Camera Person: My camera says it's at costing.extended.tablecloth! Camera: Falling at somewhere.rooms.woodstove, in Mokoru. (The camera falls to the Pokémon world, but the camera comes back.) Misc: What? Camera: At voter.that.expect. Was at again.preserves.master. Misc: Okay. Going to the Pokémon world from the north

(Misc, Camera Person, Transport System, Gimerisu, Old Man Shuckle, the camera, Man, and some wood fall down to the remains of the exploded house.) Man: Let's go down! Misc: Okay. Man: Old Man Shuckle, do you want to go down there? Old Man Shuckle: Okay. Let me-- (The floors explode.) Old Man Shuckle: --go down. (A TV crashes and many pieces of wood fall down. They cause explosions, which makes Team Rocket come.) Jessie: Hey, a trap! Misc? (Jessie, James and Giovanni fall down the trap.) The Transport System brings them to Misc & Man

Transport System: Welcome to Misc & Man! (Strandbeests come out of the walls, walk into the entrance, and leave.) Camera: Team Rocket is going here. (The Transport System enters Tejoh's house and comes downstairs, then opens a trap and falls down, goes to a hidden elevator and goes down, then finds a door and enters it and runs and goes up another elevator and mines up, then finds an entrance that leads to a trap and falls down the trap, and then they mine up the trap, dodging Pokémon and strandbeests, and find the exit in the vacuum sealer factory.) Tejoh: The Transport System dug it for me! Misc: Okay. In the vacuum sealer factory (from the exit)

Snubrai: Hey, Man! Man: Hey, Snubrai! Snubrai: Hey, Misc! Misc: Hey, Snubrai! Snubrai: We have developed advanced strandbeests. We had to spend $17,286.87. Our vacuum sealers were going up, going quicker and quicker, and because of that, it was easy to get that money. Misc: Okay. Where are the strandbeests? Snubrai: Outside. Outside

Leopoldshöhe: Leo! Leo-shö pold hö-shö e, leo-shö shopped he-sö, leo-shö hö-hö he-sö! (Misc walks in) Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Misc: What? Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Misc: Why are you repeating that a million times? Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Misc: You're repeating that a million times. Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Why is Leopoldshöhe repeating "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"?

(Misc walks into the room.) Misc: Why is Leopoldshöhe saying "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"? Snubrai: I don't know why he's saying "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!". Misc: Okay. Leopoldshöhe still says "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"

Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Misc: Okay. Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold... Misc: What's "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!" "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!" Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! 168?

Misc: Since you started saying "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!", I've counted 169 times this episode said it, including this sentence! Narrator: "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!". Misc, you broke the fourth wall! "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!" Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! -- Part 2 (Part 2 of Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!)

Misc: Too much of "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!" Narrator: Too much of "Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"? Okay, since our computer can't hold--that--much--data--this--series--is--ending--now! Misc: But, what about the 9 ep--"Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"--iso--"Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"--des??? Narrator: We'll--buy--a--new--"Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"--com--"Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"--puter... (The episode ends and turns to black. The Pokérap starts, with the video compressed.) Misc: The--"Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!"--end. I mean, the end. (It becomes black again.) Leopoldshöhe: Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! 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Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold!Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! Zheleoshözhnypoldshöheshöshoppeleoshoppeleozhnypold! 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